Oncidum is a magnificent unpretentious orchid that can be called a dream grower’s dream. Even those who do not take root and cacti can take care of her at home. And we should not doubt the endurance of the latter. However, even with such a non-fancy plant, you need to know a few nuances that will help grow the most beautiful flowers and enjoy their view for several years.
Orchid oncidum: photos and characteristics of the plant
The name of the flower is dictated by its appearance: the 2 lower petals are bent and surpass the rest in their size. This leads to an associative series with an unnatural increase due to swelling - onkos, from the Latin language. There are no single colors of petals: some varieties have a uniform color — yellow, orange, red.
Some, on the contrary, strike a casual observer with interesting combinations - crimson or purple blotches are present on a white background. Tiger and other variegated colors, as well as changes in the shape or texture of the petals, are even more impressive: some of them have wavy edges or a soft, velvety short nap on the front side of the petal.
Also depending on the variety, the size of the leaves also varies: in some specimens they are 1 m long. However, there are no such oncidum hybrids among them - they only grow in natural conditions. In most varieties suitable for home cultivation, the length of the leaves is 30-50 cm. The bushes themselves often have only 1-2 central stems, on which a twig with flowers appears. The life of the oncidum in comparison with other indoor plants is short - no more than 5 years.
The most common oncidum varieties in the middle lane are Twinkle and SweetShugar: the latter is known by its color - lemon yellow, without additional blotches. The petals of this variety are small, the flowers rather densely sprinkle the branch on which they sit.
Twinkle also has very small flowers, barely reaching 2 cm in diameter, but their color is more diverse. There are instances with purple, pink, red and white petals. In addition to them, growers love the SharryBaby variety, which is distinguished by an incredibly sweet chocolate flavor and a brown-gold color almost similar to it.
Orchid oncidum: landing features
Plant care starts at the time of purchase. If you choose the right seedlings correctly, there will be no problems with their cultivation in the future. To do this, find those flowers that have 3-4 pseudobulbs. A smaller number speaks of artificial stimulation, which leads to a rapid deterioration of the flower. For a long time such oncidum will not live. In addition, you need to consider the roots - in the "correct" state, they are bright, without spots and deformations. The same applies to the leaves, if any. And the soil in which the seedling is located should be wet, when you press it with your finger, it quickly returns to its original form.
The main rule that is important to observe when growing an oncidum at home is not to replant it. Therefore, at the time of purchase, you should understand that it is in this state that the flower will grow for you within a few years, and it should have enough space in the existing pot. Any change of residence for orchids are a lot of stress. They are produced only once every 3-4 years, or as the soil decomposes and dries out, from which all nutrients were taken.
Since the capacity under the seedling is selected for several years ahead, you should know that it should be from an opaque material, a small height, but very wide. This will allow the root system to freely sit in a pot, and extend the life of the flower in this container. In high vessels 1 / 3-1 / 2 the height must be filled with drainage material, and the substrate in any of them is made up of coniferous bark, charcoal and peat moss.
Given the characteristics of the development of the oncidum, it can not be located clearly in the center of the pot. The seedling is shifted to the side, with a focus on the old pseudobulbs, which should be at the edge of the container. The remaining space of the substrate remains free, so that new pseudobulbs appear on it, from which leaves will cut through. Orchid also does not need to deepen the root system: pseudobulbs completely look out above the ground, otherwise they are threatened with decay. The same should be feared if the level of the substrate is greatly underestimated, and the edge of the tank is at a distance of more than 2-3 cm from it: this prevents the free passage of air flows around the plant.
Oncidum without roots: how to plant?
Sometimes it happens that a vending copy of an oncidum is already doomed to a sad outcome because it does not have roots, and beginning gardeners do not know whether it will be possible to leave it. For a start, it is worth understanding whether there is an opportunity to plant such a flower and develop its root system?
Regardless of what percentage of the roots of the oncidum is preserved, the seedling is removed from the container in which it grew, carefully washed. Then it is necessary to remove all diseased, dried and damaged roots, even if it leaves no hint of the root system at all. All the same, there will be no good from them, but they will be able to kill another living plant. To determine whether the root is able to live, easily. If it has a brown color, and when pressed on it, a slimy liquid flows from inside, such a root is subject to immediate elimination.
After pruning, the orchid needs to be dried: 3-4 hours in a warm and dry place (30 minutes is enough in the summer). Then the zones where the roots were, need to be treated with activated carbon powder. No other disinfectant can be used! It is also worth using drugs that affect the development of the root system: in specialized stores, their range is quite wide. The lower part of the oncidum is immersed in the solution for 1-1.5 hours, after which it is ready for further action.
To do this, a greenhouse is created or the finished one is used, its bottom is lined with expanded clay and moist moss. The orchid is placed in a greenhouse, where the humidity is set at 75%, and the air temperature is maintained around 21-25 degrees. In addition, bright but not directional light is required. In such conditions, the germination of roots can last 14-20 days, but it takes 3-5 months to fully develop the root system.
Oncidum: home care rules
The main difficulties of caring for an oncidum fall on the period of its planting and the moment of flowering. The rest of the time, the orchid is unpretentious and loyal to any climate change. However, it is worth keeping a few unchanged rules:
- The air temperature is set in the range of 14-20 degrees, the difference between night and day is allowed by 2-4 degrees;
- The air humidity indicator should not be lowered below 40%, otherwise frequent spraying of the flower will be required;
- The oncid room should be aired frequently and with high quality, but not allowed to be drafted;
- Top dressing is carried out only in the period of appearance of young shoots and laying of flower buds.
Yellow oncidum: how to achieve an orchid bloom?
In order for the oncum to bloom, it is necessary to observe the main condition: good illumination. In particular, if a plant pot is placed on a window facing the north, there is a high probability of not seeing the flowers at all. This orchid is very sensitive to lighting, so as long as all its requirements are not met in this matter, it will not please you with a lot of full-blown buds.
The state of the flower is easy to track by the form of its leaves. If they began to darken, it should be urgently brought closer to the window, and if they were covered with brown spots, they should be protected from too active light. But in general, hiding oncidum comes only from the burning summer sun: the rest of the time, the plant absorbs both natural and artificial rays with joy. In winter, you even have to purchase additional lamps to compensate for the short day of light. This is especially important at the time of planting flower buds.
You also can not forget about the importance of watering, which directly affects the flowering of orchids. During the period of active growth, water should be supplied to oncidum daily. Such a mode is stopped only at the moment when the pseudobulbs are compacted. All this time, you can not pour water into the substrate, and lower the pot with a hole at the bottom of the basin with room water. Then the irrigation schedule becomes less rigid: in the cold season, you can water the plant 1 time in 14 days. But as soon as the flower bud begins to be laid, the flow of water again becomes frequent. A new lull comes when ontsidum will fade.
The most unpretentious varieties of oncidum are considered to be the specimens bred in Holland. They are ideal for beginners florist. But despite this, almost all of them are more light-requiring than other types of orchids, and therefore determine in advance whether you can provide a flower with enough light. The remaining factors of care for him are secondary.