Complete blood count is one of the most frequently performed examinations. By deciphering its composition, various pathologies and conditions that are atypical for a healthy person are identified.
Blood in the human body performs a number of functions, the main of which are transport and protective.
- Transportation of gases, nutrients, metabolic products.
- Homeostasis, as one of the functions, is associated with maintaining the body's water balance, acid-base balance and temperature.
- Protection of the body against foreign micro-objects. Carried out by the presence of antibodies - the so-called immune cells.
- Hemostasis is a physiological property. Manifested by coagulative abilities.
The main insoluble elements in the blood are red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. They in turn form groups of white and red blood cells. We will not dwell on each element separately. In this article we will talk about what it means to have reduced segmented neutrophils and elevated lymphocytes.
A certain type of white blood cells is called lymphocytes (approx .: white blood cells are white blood cells, the main function is protective), which is responsible for the formation of the immune barrier of the human body. Their task is to recognize and destroy the cells of viruses, various infections, fungi, as well as pathogenic neoplasms. These little bodies in the bone marrow are synthesized, and from there they already enter the blood.
Neutrophils are also a type of white blood cells, the most numerous. They are very unusual in their abilities. As soon as the body of infection appears in the body, they rush there to fight the germs. Because of this, their blood level drops. Neutrophil absorbs a pathogenic cell, neutralizes it within itself, but also dies as a result.
Leukocytes also have other varieties: eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, etc. In the study of blood from all leukocytes, more attention is paid to lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils.
When are lymphocytes elevated?
The presence of any foreign element in the body is a signal to an increase in the number of lymphocytes. This is a normal immune response. So with colds and infectious mononucleosis, the number of these bodies increases dramatically. But in the presence of influenza virus, on the contrary, their number falls below the norm.
When are neutrophils elevated?
Neutrophils are represented by 2 varieties: segmented and stunted. The latter are still young bodies, which over time are transformed into mature segmented nuclear elements. And their ability to resist infection depends on their number. As soon as the process of extermination of foreign bodies begins, the level of mature neutrophils decreases, whereas the level of immature ones increases.
If the blood test showed reduced segmented neutrophils and elevated lymphocytes, then an acute bacterial process or mass infection occurs in the body.
Leukocyte level is considered separately in children and adults. What the result of the analysis at different ages says about this further.
- Lymphocytes in the blood are reduced in a child and an adult: what does this mean?
- Blood test: transcript and rate
Lymphocytes are raised, neutrophils are lowered in a child and an adult.
The leukocyte formula is determined - the percentage ratio between different types of leukocyte bodies. Normally, the level of mature and immature neutrophils in children is as follows:-
- up to 1 year: segmented neutrophils - 15-45%, band - 0.5-4.5%;
- up to 6 years: segmented neutrophils - 25-60%, band - 0.5-4.5%;
- from 7 years: segmented neutrophils - 30-60%, band-core - up to 6%.
A decrease in the number of mature and an increase in the immature is a sign of an infectious disease.
The level of lymphocytes in children is usually quite high - 40-72%. During the period of growth, the immune barrier of the child’s body is only being formed, and the protective functions are often malfunctioning. Up to 6 years is considered normal lymphocyte figure at the level of 26-60%. From the age of seven immunity begins to work more stably. As a result, the level of lymphocytes reaches the norm of 22-50%.
Even without a blood test, the presence of an infectious lesion of the body can be judged by the child’s condition. High temperatures of 38–40 degrees, high fever are the first signs that the child has elevated lymphocytes and lowered neutrophils. That is, the infectious process is in full swing.
In this case, antiviral therapy is prescribed to the small patient. However, the result of a blood test in the presence of the mentioned symptoms will shed light on the nature of the indisposition. After all, similar symptoms are also observed during parasitic infections. If a dry cough is added to the external signs in the absence of wheezing in the lungs, then this is definitely not our case, but parasites.
In chronic viral infections, a similar pattern is observed: low neutrophil levels and high lymphocytes. Sometimes it is the result of a recent viral infection. It is required to examine the baby for possible viral pathologies.
Leukocyte formula in an adult (normal):
- segmented neutrophils - 30-60%;
- stab neutrophils - up to 6%;
- lymphocytes - 22-50%.
Abnormality indicates an inflammatory process that the immune system is currently struggling with. What else can values indicate when an adult has elevated lymphocytes and neutrophils are lowered?
Lymphocytes are increased:
- tubercle bacillus;
- viral infection;
- thyroid dysfunction;
- acute or chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
- viral infection;
- body reaction to drug therapy;
- the body's response to the effects of radiation therapy.
In this case, a comprehensive examination is required to determine the nature of the disorder. Additionally, a urine test, a smear test, radiography, ultrasound and other necessary examinations are carried out.
- The basophils in the blood test in an adult are raised or lowered.
- Eosinophils are elevated in blood: what does this mean?
- In the urine of the child leukocytes: the norm and the reasons for their increase
Only a comprehensive diagnosis will help identify the cause and focus of ailment, as well as prescribe adequate therapy. Note that in most cases antibiotics are included in drug treatment. Timely qualitative diagnostics and effective treatment are especially important for children. After all, various kinds of infections can be very dangerous for the health and life of a baby.