Rabies is considered one of the most dangerous infectious diseases, which in most clinical cases entails a lethal outcome. As a rule, the rabies virus is transmitted by the bite of a sick animal. Today we will talk about what are the symptoms of rabies in humans, and how to protect themselves from such ailment.
Methods of infection: etiology of the disease
Rabies as a human disease is conditionally divided into two types:
The first type can be triggered by the bites of animals living in the wild. These include wolves, foxes, raccoons, skunks, etc. The second type of pathology is the most common in medical practice. A person may become infected with rabies from a pet - a cat or a dog.
Some animals are carriers of the pathological microorganism - Neuroiyctes rabid. When it enters the human body, rabies is infected. Unfortunately, none of us can protect ourselves from infection, but if all measures are taken in time to treat an animal bite, the development of complicated consequences can be avoided.
Rabies is transmitted, usually through the bite of an infected four-pet. As medical practice shows, the most dangerous is a bite in the head area. In 80% of cases, a person becomes infected with rabies. When biting the wrist infection is observed in 50% of cases. But the safest, oddly enough, is considered a bite for the lower leg. With such a localization of a bite, rabies is manifested only in 20% of people.
Previously, after a bite, a person had to watch his pet for 10 days. If the animal did not die, then rabies did not threaten man. Today, you must immediately contact a medical institution and do the appropriate vaccination.
Neuroiyctes rabid can also get into the human body without a bite. For example, if the saliva of an infected animal falls into an open wound or abrasion, infection may well occur.
Primary clinical picture
After the infected four-legged pet has entered the saliva of the human body, the first signs of rabies can appear within 3 months or 10-12 days. The primary period of infection with rabies in humans is referred to as hidden or incubation. Medical practice there are cases when the first signs appeared after four years after the bite.
Treating specialists distinguish three main stages of the development of human rabies, and each of them has certain symptoms. So, rabies has the following steps:
- excitement period;
As a rule, the primary signs of rabies occur within 24-72 hours. These include:
- Feeling bite. By this time, the site of localization of the integrity of the skin may already be fully tightened, but the person feels pain syndromes.
- The skin at the site of localization of the bite becomes overly sensitive.
- Subfebrile temperature rises to 37.3 °.
- There is a pathological weakness, which is accompanied by headaches, bouts of nausea and urge to gag reflexes.
- Hallucinations appear. They may be olfactory.
- Sleep disturbance and loss of appetite.
Next comes the so-called excitation phase. During this period, there are such signs of rabies in humans:
- Fear of water. A person is even afraid to take a sip of water, against the background of which he has spasms of the upper respiratory tract, and vomiting may also occur.
- Respiratory processes become convulsive. A person lacks oxygen, and his breathing becomes shallow.
- Seizures convulsions affect the facial muscle tissue, resulting in a person may twist.
- There is a pathological fear of bright light.
- Pulse increases sharply.
- The sweat compartment rises, and the patient is constantly flowing saliva.
The period of irritation, as shown by medical practice, occurs 2-3 days after infection of the patient. It is during this period that the nervous system is at the peak of arousal, so a person becomes extremely aggressive and dangerous. The patient can break objects, tear hair, clothes, threaten others.
At the moments of attacks, a person develops various hallucinations, which become mainly auditory in nature. The patient may even have a brief cessation of the functioning of the heart muscle.
The third stage, which is called paralysis, is considered the most dangerous. Signs of rabies in a person become pronounced, and the symptoms appear life-threatening. This stage develops approximately 12-24 hours after infection. The following symptoms are characteristic of the palsy period:
- paralysis processes affect the functioning of the speech apparatus;
- there is a dysfunction of certain parts of the brain;
- the ability to move independently disappears;
- a person stops to perceive reality, almost all the senses atrophy;
- subfebrile temperature rises to a critical point of 42 °.
At this stage, all of the above symptoms lead to death. Fatal outcome occurs as a result of the cessation of the functioning of the heart muscle or respiratory organs. A total of rabies symptoms occur within 3-7 days after infection. After the initial manifestation of symptoms, death occurs within 24 hours.
If you have been bitten by an animal, you do not need to wait until the primary symptoms of rabies appear, and you should consult a doctor immediately. The attending specialist will be able to examine the person and make a decision on the conduct of systematic vaccination. Be sure to vaccinate hunters and veterinarians.
To form a strong immunity to pathogenic microorganisms that provoke rabies in humans, vaccinations are done in a specific pattern. As medical practice shows, intramuscular injection is carried out on the first day, and then on day 3, 7, 14, 28. At the end of 3 and 6 months, the patient who is at risk may repeatedly be asked to undergo a vaccination procedure.
Be sure to get the vaccine needed in such cases:
- when bitten by rodents living in an open area;
- when ingested saliva of an infected animal that has obvious symptoms of rabies;
- in case of injury, in particular, in the destruction of the integrity of the skin with objects that were in contact with infectious animals.
In other cases, vaccination is not considered necessary, but it is impossible to ignore the visit to the attending specialist. Even after the bite of a home pet is necessary to visit a medical facility. As already mentioned, earlier in practice they waited 10 days from the moment of the bite. If the animal remained healthy, it means that the person did not fall into the risk zone. However, it is highly undesirable to be guided by this rule, since death in the event of infection occurs on average after 7 days.
If a person fails to go to a medical facility in a timely manner, and the symptoms of rabies become pronounced, the medicine here is powerless. The patient is hospitalized to relieve symptoms, isolate him from extraneous noise and bright light. Ventilation of the pulmonary cavity is carried out to prolong life, but this does not save.
Unfortunately, medicine today is not known how to treat rabies in humans. If the clinical picture is already manifested, then save the person will not succeed. That is why it is so important to observe all precautions during outdoor recreation, as well as to keep four-legged pets in accordance with the rules. Recently, mankind has faced the problem of large concentrations of stray dogs on city streets. Try to avoid contact with such animals, and if you bite, immediately contact a medical institution. Be healthy!