Prostate cancer is a malignant neoplasm. This means that the tumor can spread to other organs. This pathology occurs in men. A tumor usually develops slowly and can often be completely removed and successfully treated. Consider prostate cancer: symptoms and treatment.
What is cunning and dangerous prostate cancer?
The prostate or prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system. It produces a portion of a fluid called seminal fluid, which connects with the sperm from the testicles and forms sperm.
Prostate cells can undergo changes that correct their growth or provoke abnormal behavior. This can lead to benign diseases, such as prostatitis and prostatic hyperplasia.
Such changes in cells can also provoke precancerous conditions:
- intraepithelial neoplasia of the prostate gland;
- proliferative inflammatory atrophy;
- atypical acinar proliferation.
In some cases, modified prostate cells can cause malignant tumors. Cancer develops most often in the glandular cells of the prostate. This type of cancer is called prostate adenocarcinoma. However, rare types of prostate cancer are not excluded:
- transient carcinoma;
- small cell cancer;
Symptoms of a malignant tumor in prostate cells
Very often, prostate cancer develops without any symptoms. Unlike prostate adenoma, a tumor forms on the periphery of the prostate gland and from the urethra, therefore, only in rare cases does it lead to urinary disorders.
The tumor develops slowly, and the symptoms appear when it grows or when it begins to metastasize. Signs and symptoms of prostate cancer can be triggered by other conditions, so it is important to consult a doctor if unusual sensations occur.
Prostate cancer is characterized by symptoms such as:
- impaired urination;
- frequent urge to urinate, especially at night;
- inability to contain urine, urgency urgency;
- difficult to urinate or stop urination;
- inability to emit urine;
- decrease in pressure during urination;
- stop urine flow in the process;
- feeling of fullness in the bladder;
- urine contains blood inclusions;
- pain and discomfort at the time of urination;
- painful ejaculation.
Signs of a later stage of tumor development appear gradually, as it grows and spreads to other parts of the body. These include:
- fast fatiguability;
- pain in the bones, especially in the back and in the hips;
- weight loss;
- low hemoglobin, anemia;
- weakness or numbness in the legs;
- loss of bladder control or bowel movement.
Late symptoms correspond to 4 degrees of prostate cancer, and how many people live with such manifestations of pathology depends on the therapeutic effect. If appropriate treatment is not carried out, then this greatly worsens the prognosis.
Treatment plans are based on the assessment of such indicators of the disease as:
- type of cancer in the prostate;
- the degree of tumor development;
- localization and risk of metastasis;
- the presence of metastases;
- the age and the presence of other health complaints of the patient;
- individual wishes regarding the method of treatment.
The main treatment options for cancer of the prostate include:
- Active observation: regular medical examinations using digital rectal examination, tests for prostate-specific antigens and biopsy.
- Surgery includes three types of intervention, such as:
- Radical prostatectomy is the most common surgical procedure for complete removal of a tumor.
- Pelvic lymphadenectomy - during radical prostatectomy, the lymph nodes in the pelvic region are removed. It is used at high risk of spreading cancer to other organs.
- Removal of a portion of the prostate by endoscopy — an intervention is performed to alleviate the symptoms of urinary tract obstruction. The operation is performed when radical prostatectomy is contraindicated.
- Remote or internal radiation therapy.
- Hormone replacement therapy, including analogues of luteinizing hormone release, antiandrogens, removal of the testes. With a high risk of prostate cancer, hormonal and radiation therapy can be carried out in parallel.
- Chemotherapy is a treatment in which drugs against cancer cells are used by injection into a vein.
- Brachytherapy. The meaning of this procedure is the introduction of radioactive implants into the prostate, which will destroy cancer cells.
What does the statistics say?
Over 95% of prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas. Many of them develop slowly and respond well to treatment. Rare forms of prostate cancer make up less than 5% of all cases and generate various projections. Full recovery depends on each stage of prostate cancer.
Relative survival after 5 years
Prediction of recovery from prostate cancer 1 and 2 degrees
Stage 3 and 4 without metastases
Grade 4 with metastases
As you can see, in the fourth stage of prostate cancer in the presence of metastases, the prognosis is disappointing. The average life expectancy with prostate cancer 4 degrees from the beginning of therapeutic effects ranges from 7 to 9 years.
Our knowledge of cancer is constantly changing. Researchers and health professionals regularly transform information obtained through scientific methods that affect the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer, and also helps to improve the quality of life of people with this disease.