Poliovirus treatment in itself is not possible, because there are still no drugs capable of defeating the pathogen. With an outbreak of the disease, only symptomatic treatment is possible. The only effective protection against polio is the vaccine. So, polio vaccination: side effects.
Poliomyelitis and its prevention
Polio is a disease caused by a highly contagious poliovirus infection. A person becomes contagious within a few hours after infection and remains a distributor of the disease for six weeks. Usually the incubation period is from 3 to 35 days.
The virus is transmitted mainly by the fecal-oral route, as are the polioviruses of pathogenic microorganisms that cause hepatitis A. people. Airborne infection, for example, when sneezing or coughing, infection can also be transmitted, but relatively rarely.
Polio is often asymptomatic. An infected person usually does not know about the infection. The penetration of the virus into the central nervous system can cause symptoms such as:
- stiff neck;
- muscle pain.
In severe cases, this can lead to paralysis of the legs. Other muscles, such as the arms, eyes, or stomach, may also be affected. In case of paralysis of the respiratory muscles, death from suffocation can occur. In adults, the disease is much worse than in children.
After recovery in life, sometimes years or decades later, the so-called post-poliomyelitis syndrome occurs. It can be seen earlier, when the disease passed without any signs. In the process of post-polio syndrome, complaints such as muscle wasting, weakness, pain and fatigue occur. Characteristically, it is impossible to find the cause of discomfort during medical examinations. Some chronic diseases are believed to be symptoms of post-polio syndrome.
As already mentioned, polio is not treated. When infection is carried out symptomatic therapy to alleviate the patient's condition. In the case of this pathology, first of all, it is necessary to speak not about the treatment, but about the prevention of the disease - the conduct of vaccination.
To date, there are two types of vaccinations:
- oral vaccine in the form of droplets against poliomyelitis (OPV), which is introduced into the body orally;
- injectable polio vaccine (IPV) administered intramuscularly in the buttock, forearm or thigh.
To be vaccinated or not? Indications and contraindications
Routine vaccination against polio is done according to the so-called immunization schedule. According to this calendar, oral vaccination is carried out to all children in the third month of life, and then at the age of 4.5 months. and in half a year. Revaccination is carried out in three stages:
- upon reaching 18 months of age;
- at the age of 20 months;
- children over 14 years old.
As for injection vaccination, the primary immunization in this way is carried out in two stages. Between the first and second stages must take at least 2 months. The first IPV is placed on children aged at least two months. Revaccinations are also carried out in two stages:
- one year after the second stage of the initial IPV;
- after five years from the first stage of revaccination.
Vaccinations against polio are contraindicated in such cases:
- HIV-infected individuals and those in close contact with carriers of immunodeficiency virus;
- when observing neurological complications in the period after the previous vaccination;
- during exacerbation of chronic disease;
- people with allergies to vaccine components;
- with cancer;
- persons suffering from diseases of the autoimmune nature.
Vaccine side effects
Among the effects of polio vaccination, the following abnormalities were most commonly observed:
- a slight increase in body temperature;
- short diarrhea;
- local reactions in the form of rash or redness;
- lack of appetite;
- general weakness.
The main consequence of polio vaccination by oral route is infection from the vaccine and the development of the disease. Domestic statistics claims that the frequency of such cases is 1 to 2.5 million vaccinations.
In addition, it should be noted that, according to European medical standards, poliomyelitis immunization today should be carried out only in the form of injections. This is due to the fact that with this type of vaccination, unlike oral vaccination, there is no risk of contracting polio from the vaccine. Injectable vaccination is much more expensive than oral, and this is its only drawback.
What does Dr. Komarovsky advise?
Evgeny Komarovsky worked for a long time as an infectious diseases specialist. He has extensive experience in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. Let's see Komarovsky reviews about polio vaccines and their consequences.
Any vaccination can cause a reaction of the body. This is perfectly normal, since the body began the process of generating antibodies to a specific agent. There are vaccines that are transferred with little or no serious response from the body. These are just the polio vaccine.
The introduction of some other vaccines may accompany malaise. Here it is important to distinguish between the reaction to vaccination and the complication caused by the vaccine. Reaction is a natural phenomenon that does not pose any danger to the health of the child. Whereas a complication is an event requiring serious analysis by the medical commission.
All sane and reasonable parents should understand that the rejection of vaccinations is a return to the Middle Ages, when uncontrollable epidemics broke out everywhere. Here two opinions can not be. It is necessary to vaccinate children!