Perhaps it is impossible to find a person in the whole world who has not encountered such a phenomenon as coughing. Especially often this symptom manifests itself in childhood. Treatment specialists call this condition bronchitis. Today we will talk about why obstructive bronchitis appears in a child and how to deal with it.
We find out the cause with a specialist
Unfortunately, none of us are immune from pathologies developing in the respiratory tract. Most often, children of various age categories are affected by bronchitis. Obstructive bronchitis in children is nothing but the development of the inflammatory process. This pathology develops in the mucous coating of the bronchi, as a result of which their walls sharply narrow, which complicates the flow of respiratory processes. This condition in medical practice received the name of bronchial obstruction syndrome.
Let's look at the list of the main reasons that can trigger the development of such a disease in babies:
- Infectious pathogens. This is the most common cause of obstructive bronchitis. The causative agents of the disease can be different groups of viruses. Often, babies become ill with bronchitis against the background of a previous flu or a catarrhal pathology.
- Allergic reaction. It is also considered one of the most common causes of this type of bronchitis in children. As medical practice shows, the possibility of the overflow of bronchitis to chronic illnesses, for example, asthma, constitutes a great danger in this disease. Every year the number of pathogens-allergens grows exponentially. These include food and animal hair, various pollens, pharmacological preparations and even vitamin complexes.
- Another reason for the occurrence of obstructive bronchitis in a baby can be a fungus that affects the formation of mold. This pathology occurs if the child is often in rooms with a high humidity threshold.
- Often the appearance of pathologies of the respiratory tract and ecology affects. Cigarette smoke, exhaust fumes and air emissions also play a significant role in the development of obstructive bronchitis.
How to identify the disease: characteristic symptoms
Unfortunately, not all parents immediately rush to the doctor when the baby has a cough. Many people think that coughing is a residual phenomenon of a cold or flu. But even the usual allergic rash on the skin can be a precursor to the development of obstructive bronchitis. What are the signs of this disease? Let's listen to the opinion of experts.
The list of the main specific symptoms of obstructive bronchitis that develops in children should include:
- sore throat;
- weakness and pathological malaise;
- increase in temperature threshold;
- difficulty of respiratory processes;
- wheezing and noise breathing;
- blanching of the skin;
- blue skin around the corners of the mouth;
- swelling of the nasal wings;
- coughing up sputum of viscous, slimy, and lean nature;
- bouts of coughing.
Most often, children with an age of 2–3 years are affected by obstructive bronchitis. The primary symptoms of the disease are very similar to a cold disease. Then, as the inflammatory bronchial processes develop, the symptoms become specific. Older children, along with the symptoms listed above, may have sore throat or neck lymphadenitis.
If the pathology of the bronchi is manifested in the first six months of the life of the crumbs, then, most likely, this is due to a weakened immunity or prematurity. In such cases, as a rule, acute bronchiolitis is diagnosed, which is fraught with complicated consequences, including death.
Forms of obstructive bronchitis: the opinion of doctors
All attending specialists in medical practice are guided by a single classification of obstructive bronchitis. It is divided into several categories depending on the severity:
Also, obstructive bronchitis is divided into two large groups:
When the disease is in the acute stage, the above symptoms appear sharply and very clearly. But the chronic form of the development of the disease involves the appearance of its recurrence. Attacks of failures of the respiratory process in this case are not observed.
In order to determine the type of pathology and the severity of its development, a pulmonologist and a pediatrician are required to examine a crumb. To obtain a complete clinical picture and an accurate diagnosis, the attending specialists in their practice use the following diagnostic methods:
- blood tests for allergens;
- examination of the nasal passages;
- x-ray examination;
- sputum culture;
The last diagnostic method allows to evaluate the functioning of the lungs. Such a study is conducted only for children over five years old.
Down with obstructive bronchitis: we treat the disease correctly
I would immediately like to draw the attention of parents to the fact that the treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children has its own characteristics, therefore it is extremely dangerous to self-medicate, and this is not welcomed by the doctors. The fact is that this ailment is very insidious and its development can lead to the appearance of complicated consequences. In addition, when symptoms appear, it is difficult for the baby to breathe, he has shortness of breath due to narrowing of the bronchial passage. As you understand, this can lead to asphyxia, so treatment issues should be treated with the utmost responsibility.
Let's first consider the features of the treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children, developing in acute form. Depending on the severity of the pathology, the baby can be hospitalized. As a rule, only infants and children under 3 years of age undergo inpatient treatment. If bronchial obstruction develops in a mild form, the doctor will prescribe outpatient treatment.
After the diagnosis and research of all necessary tests, the specialist prescribes pharmacological agents. Antibiotic drugs are prescribed only in the presence of viruses and infectious pathogens. If there is accumulation of mucus in the bronchial cavity, which cannot be removed by itself, substances that have a liquefying effect may be prescribed.
In addition, the baby should be given plenty of drink (decoctions, teas, juices), to ensure maximum access of fresh air to the room where it is located, as well as to do inhalation manipulations.
Treatment of chronic bronchitis in children with obstructive forms is also characterized by a number of features. First, the attending specialist may prescribe pharmacological agents from a number of immunotropes to prevent recurrence. Secondly, the doctor may prescribe the use of mucolytic pharmacological agents. In some cases, the baby is recommended to perform breathing exercises and dietary compliance.
Dear parents, with the appearance of the smallest symptoms of bronchitis in a baby, he should certainly be shown to the attending specialist. Timely diagnosis and treatment will prevent the development of complicated consequences. Health to you and your children!