In the modern world, infectious diseases are not uncommon, and in such cases we resort to the use of antibiotics. A wide range of drugs are used against many microorganisms, but they are less effective than the macrolides of the last generation. Because the majority of macrolides have a narrow focus for a particular disease and do not adversely affect the microflora.
The mechanism of action and the list of drugs
Macrolides are a group of drugs that are counted as antibiotics. Today, they are the safest and save those who are allergic to penicillin or cephalosporins, often used in pediatrics.
The mechanism of action of macrolides is that they inhibit protein synthesis in the microbial cell by binding to the ribosome. They also activate non-specific defense mechanisms of the body, carry out the intracellular destruction of microorganisms.
The classification of this drug is as follows, according to the number of carbon atoms:
- 14 atoms:
- 15 atoms:
- 16 atoms:
- Midecamycin acetate.
By type of origin macrolides are: natural and semi-synthetic. Natural include:
All the rest can be attributed to the second category.
If we divide the macrolides by generations, we get the following picture:
- Erythromycin - the first generation;
- Spiramycin, josamycin, midekamitsin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin - the second;
- Azithromycin - the third.
Erythromycin originated in 1952 and became the first drug that discovered the group of macrolides of the last generation. Its advantage is that it does not harm nucleic acids. However, progress does not stand still, and at the moment this type of macrolide has the worst bioavailability, lower concentration in organs and tissues, most often causes side effects.
Indications for use of erythromycin:
- infectious and inflammatory diseases:
- Scarlet fever;
- Whooping cough;
- Community-acquired respiratory tract infections:
- Atypical pneumonia.
It can be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding, but you should not take erythromycin if you have a hypersensitivity to this antibiotic or you drink pimozide, terfenadine, colchicine, astemizole.
Macrolides have a number of indisputable advantages, for example, they are safe, effective, well tolerated, it can also be noted that these drugs:
- They have a powerful bacteriostatic effect;
- They have great chances to defeat streptococci and staphylococci;
- Do not cause cross-allergy with B-lactams;
- Do not affect the activities of the digestive tract;
- Have low toxicity;
- Create an immunomodulating effect;
- They penetrate the tissue best;
- Have an optimal course of treatment - 3-5 days.
In addition, patients always like the convenient form of macrolides: tablets, suspensions, syrups, which is even more comfortable when treating small patients.
Indications and contraindications to the use of antibiotics of the new generation
Most often, experts recommend the use of macrolides for allergies to other drugs. So, erythromycin is advised to drink in case of fever or intestinal decontamination.
In turn, clarithromycin will be effective in preventing infections that can cause AIDS, as well as in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Spiramycin has a beneficial effect on toxoplasmosis.
Josamycin is best used in the event of a soft tissue infection, treatment of diseases of the respiratory system, infections of the odontogenic type. A lot of important and the fact that it can be assigned to pregnant women.
Any macrolides can be used inside.
Contraindications for the use of these drugs may be: hypersensitivity and periods of pregnancy and breastfeeding (some types of the drug).
The list of macrolide preparations is quite wide and safe among antibiotics, but, nevertheless, they are also not without undesirable reactions, such as abdominal pain, nausea, weakness, fever, dizziness, and so on. Therefore, if there are no improvements when using the medication, and new symptoms are all added, then you should immediately consult a doctor.
Macrolides of the new generation, of course, have enough advantages in the treatment of infectious diseases, including in children. However, each drug has its own characteristics and nuances in its use, so do not try to undergo a course of treatment yourself, be sure to consult with an experienced doctor. Only he is able to prescribe an effective treatment, which will lead to your recovery, and not aggravate the situation.