According to statistics, about 30 percent of people lose consciousness at least once. In this case, fainting can happen not only with those who have serious health problems. Loss of consciousness leads to many reasons. It is very important to prevent this condition and provide first aid to a person.
- Fainting or loss of consciousness is considered to be the body’s response to internal problems or external stimuli. During this state, the person stops responding, his muscles relax. The reasons why faint can be many.
- Loss of consciousness can be explained by the reaction of the nervous system. There are people who react to irritating factors in this way: the type of blood, insects or rodents. This loss of consciousness can be explained by phobias. Of course, these people are a minority. Fasting, severe stress and acute pain also lead to fainting.
- Pathological syncope is also possible. They usually occur in people suffering from serious illnesses. For example, if a diabetic patient misses an injection, then it may well lead to loss of consciousness.
- Another reason for fainting is more concerned with adolescents and the elderly. You can lose consciousness when you try to get up sharply or turn around. In adolescents, such syncope occurs during the transitional age, when the body is growing rapidly, and in older people with bed rest. Such people may experience a delay in the work of the vessels when moving.
- An abrupt change of position can also lead to fainting in people suffering from low blood pressure.
- Also, loss of consciousness is possible in women during heavy menstruation or when the tube is ruptured during ectopic pregnancy.
- Fainting is possible with impaired blood circulation (for example, with stuffiness or choking) and brain concussion.
- Often, circulatory disorders are associated with problems of the cardiovascular system. There are several reasons - incorrect work of the heart, due to which the release of blood becomes less, a violation of heart rhythms. Very often, loss of consciousness can be a precursor of a heart attack.
- The tendency to loss of consciousness affects heredity. In people genetically predisposed to fainting, you can notice certain anatomical features. Among them are the wrong bite, non-standard structure of the limbs, skull, chest.
- Loss of consciousness is possible with different types of shocks. This may be anaphylactic shock caused by a severe allergic reaction or infectious shock. In both cases, the vessels dilate, and a strong outflow of blood occurs.
Syncope: main symptoms
Many people have a premonition to swoon in advance. The main symptoms are as follows.
- Discoloration of skin and mucous membranes. A person's lips turn blue and his skin turns pale.
- Perhaps numbness of the arms and legs.
- On the surface of the skin may act droplets of cold sweat.
- Weakness and nausea. In the pre-fainting state, you can feel general weakness, darkening of the eyes, ringing in the ears, dizziness. Most often this is due to a decrease in blood pressure.
Usually the loss of consciousness is divided into stages. The symptoms described above are characteristic of the pre-unconscious state. At this point, you can prevent loss of consciousness - just take a comfortable position (sit or lie down) and drink water.
Then he faints himself. The muscles cease to strain, the person falls. All symptoms of pre-fainting appear more noticeable - a person may sweat, limbs cramp. Usually during this period, the patient has a difficult pulse, his breathing is intermittent, the pressure is lowered.
In the case of deep fainting, involuntary urination may occur. A state of unconsciousness can last up to several minutes.
After a person wakes up, there is a post-cstier condition. At this moment he feels weak.
First aid for loss of consciousness
Many people think that fainting is not dangerous, that this is a condition from which a person leaves on his own - you just need to let him lie down. In fact, in case of loss of consciousness, irreversible changes may occur in the brain tissue. Therefore, it is very important to make a person wake up as soon as possible.
Try to prevent the fall of the patient. He can hit his head hard. If fainting occurs due to stuffiness and other external causes, then transfer the person to another place. Act carefully.
Place the patient on any horizontal surface - floor or sofa. Legs raise a little - so you improve blood circulation. Under the head is not worth anything underlay.
Loosen the belt, stretch the buttons on your shirt or blouse, loosen your tie, if you have one. Check pulse - attach 2 fingers to the carotid artery. In the absence of pulse and breathing, artificial respiration and an indirect heart massage should be performed. If the person continues to not breathe, call an ambulance.
While the doctors are going, check the reaction of the pupils - open your eyes and watch the pupil, light a lamp or a telephone. If the room is dark, then use another method - touch the eyelids with a scarf. If a person blinks and the pupils react to light, you can not do a heart massage and artificial respiration. If you are not breathing, continue resuscitation. It can save a sick life.
If you feel the pulse and the person breathes, then you need to turn it on its side in case of vomiting.
Try to get a person out of a swoon. To do this, use a cold compress, pat it on the cheeks. Bring a cotton wool dipped in ammonia or vinegar under your nose.
Ask witnesses - maybe someone knows what caused fainting. Examine a person’s pockets - maybe he's sick, and there may be medications.
After the patient regained consciousness in no way leave him alone - a faint can happen again.
If fainting happened only once, then do not worry. You can analyze the causes and try to avoid them next time. With frequent loss of consciousness is to consult a doctor. Usually doctors associate the symptom with impaired blood circulation, problems with the brain, anemia, changes in the composition of the blood. It is best to turn to a neurologist - he will make the correct diagnosis after the examination and testing.
You can also follow certain rules that can reduce the possibility of fainting:
- Try to drink more fluids. This helps to maintain a normal metabolic process in the body. Reduce the amount of salt.
- Try not to stay long in the same position (especially if it is inconvenient), do not cross the limbs.
- If you have problems with blood pressure, do a special isothermal gymnastics.
Anyone can lose consciousness. Causes of fainting, there are many - diseases, circulatory disorders, lowering blood pressure. It is very important to help a person. First aid for loss of consciousness is reduced to the fact that the patient must be put on, loosen the straps and stiffening clothes, try to regain consciousness with the help of light slaps or sal ammoniac.