Cardiology is a very serious section of medicine. An ordinary person is difficult to understand its terms. But, given the prevalence of cardiac pathologies, knowing something about methods of diagnosing cardiovascular insufficiency still does not hurt. Let's understand the concept of "ejection fraction of the heart." What is its norm and why is it violated?
Cordial case: ejection fraction
The value, which is called the heart ejection fraction (EF), allows us to give an objective assessment of the work of this body, or more precisely, to answer the question of how well the left ventricle performs its duties. It reflects how much blood it pushes at the time of contraction.
Why is it important to establish the performance of the heart muscles of the left, not the right ventricle? Because he feeds blood into the systemic circulation. If its “deficiency” arises here, it is a direct path to heart failure. Thus, in order to find out whether this terrible disease threatens a person, it is advisable to determine what work the heart performs with each push. In short, the ejection fraction is the percentage of the volume of blood that the heart muscle throws into the vessels during each contraction.
To whom need to check this figure?
A referral to such a diagnosis is not given to all patients who have applied to a medical facility. It will be received only by those patients who are worried about such symptoms:
- bolvrayonegrudnoy cells;
- regular disruption of this “shock” organ;
- frequent pulse;
- short-term loss of knowledge;
- lower extremities;
- reduced performance
Thus, to check how much blood pushes the ventricle, it is necessary for those who have symptoms that indicate problems in the work of the heart.
Which one examination will help measure the PV?
This indicator is determined when conducting ultrasound of the heart, echocardiography and contrast X-ray. This is an inexpensive and affordable examination, which is highly informative, does not involve painful sensations and does not require special training from the patient.
To understand how the ejection fraction is determined, consider this with an example. If there was 100 ml of blood in the ventricle, he sent 55 ml to the vascular system, then the EF is 55%.
how many should blood push the heart out?
With each contraction, the human “motor” releases more than 50% of the blood contained in the left ventricle into the bloodstream. If this value does not reach 50%, then the diagnosis is “failure”. It is very dangerous for the body: with a decrease in volume, ischemia, malformation, and myocardium develop.
What should be a healthy person ejection fraction of the heart? The rate is in the range from 55 to 70% - so much blood for one reduction should put the heart in the aorta. Only in this way can the internal organs receive a sufficient amount of oxygen.
Already at 40-55% there is reason to say that PV is below the physiological norm. And if this figure fell to 35-40%, this is a serious warning that a person has big heart problems. It is urgent to consult with a cardiologist to prevent heart failure.-
Why reduced emissions?
The key reason why cardiac output is beginning to lag behind is the breakdown of the pumping function of the heart. Very bad diseases can lead to such a state: cardiomyopathy, heart disease, ischemia, heart attack. Cardiac (primary) factors causing a decrease in EF include:
- violation of the functioning of the heart valves;
- heart failure (which induces wrinkling of the muscles from zeropermitic contractions);
- myocardial damage (this is the most common cause);
- violation of the exchange processes in the heart muscle;
- clogging of the coronary vessels.
Practice shows that the release is able to fall to such an extent that the necessary nutrients are no longer supplied to the tissue. The result is a cardiogenic shock.
There are additional factors that also adversely affect cardiac output. These include an increase in the lumen of small arteries and blockage of large veins, a decrease in the amount of circulating blood, arterial hypertension, and hormonal imbalance.
how treat small cardiac output?
Of course, no doctor will begin to increase the ejection fraction only on the basis of low values obtained by ultrasound. Before deciding how to increase the ejection fraction of the heart, he will try to establish the cause of the low PV. The treatment of low emissions is aimed at eliminating the source of such a condition and relieving pain, improving the minute volume and nutrition of the heart muscle, restoring the heart tone. Additionally, apply oxygen therapy.
To bring FV to normal, use Dopamine, Dobutamine, Digoxin, Korglikon, Strofantin. These medicines help strengthen the contractility of our main muscle. Only a doctor can prescribe cardiac glycosides, self-treatment is extremely dangerous!
If ischemic disease contributed to the decrease in EF, then nitroglycerin preparations are prescribed. When the defect is indicated surgical treatment. If the heart has become worse to perform their duties due to high blood pressure, the patient will be prescribed antihypertensive drugs. To protect the heart and blood vessels, Enalapril, Enam, Perindopril, Prestarium, Capoten, Lisinopril, Lozap, Lorista, Walz are used.
But it is not always possible to increase the PV only by medical means. To cure a disease that caused such a deviation, the help of heart surgeons may be needed. To do this, they perform prosthetic valves, install stents, perform coronary bypass surgery, or install a pacemaker.
Even to someone who has little knowledge of medicine, it is clear that any deviations in the work of the heart can lead to fatal consequences. Treatment of such problems is usually difficult and long. Therefore, you should try to make sure that the indicator of PV always remains normal. For this you need to move more, spend time in the fresh air, eat right and quit bad habits.