All of us during the life pass various tests, and the main one is the blood test. It is a complete blood count provides a complete picture of human health. When, according to the results of the study, deviations from the norm are found for any indicators, this indicates the development of pathological processes in the body. What does it mean if the blood eosinophils are elevated? And what is their norm? Let's look at these issues.
What are eosinophils?
Eosinophils are cells that leukocyte germs have. These are advocates who constantly struggle with various pathological microorganisms and prevent their harmful effects.
Eosinophils are called so because of the particular red granules. The granules themselves can be easily distinguished during a blood test under a microscope: simply add specialized paint.
Predominantly eosinophils are engaged in the elimination of immune complexes containing a cluster of proteins of various antigens with antibodies. Such an accumulation occurs after the neutralization of agents of a certain pathology by the immune system.
Once the foreign protein enters the body, the immune system produces antibodies that bind bacteria, deactivating all their properties. For the destruction of these complexes and there are eosinophils. They purify the blood, absorbing excessive accumulations. This eliminates the risk of significant tissue destruction.
Eosinophils appear in the bone marrow, and then enter the bloodstream, circulating for 12 hours. When the blood contains immune complexes, as well as any mediators of inflammation, they immediately eliminate them. If the blood is relatively "pure", then the eosinophils still remain: what if the "enemies" appear again, and the "new generation" will not be ready?
The rate of their content in the blood
When there are a lot of eosinophils in the blood, it is called eosinophilia. In the normal state, the blood contains 0-2 eosinophils, and this indicator can increase only if there are certain pathologies in the body, namely:
- serious viral or bacterial infection;
- autoimmune processes.
It is known that these cells may not always be beneficial to the body. When they fight an infection, an allergic reaction can begin. If the number of eosinophils is more than 5% of the total number of leukocytes, then serious diseases can develop. Where they accumulate, the fabric begins to inflame. This sometimes causes rhinitis or laryngeal edema in children.
Eosinophils increased: what does this mean?
Among the main reasons for the increase in the number of eosinophils in adults is:
- Allergy. This reason is considered the most common. However, this condition can also be caused by opisthorchiasis, giardiasis or ascariasis. Thus, the body is protected from parasites.
- Infection. An increase in the number of eosinophils may be associated with gastrointestinal infections or diseases. Such a phenomenon is considered evidence of the beginning of the healing process.
- Malignant tumors. Sometimes an increase in eosinophils indicates the appearance of metastases from a malignant tumor. That is why you should immediately contact a specialist and be examined.
- Dermatological pathology. The formation of eosinophils is often a manifestation of dermatitis or eczema.
- Myocardial infarction or respiratory system diseases.
Why is elevated eosinophils in the blood of a child?
It is known that elevated eosinophils in the blood of a child can have two main reasons:
- The manifestation of allergies. Mostly a similar condition is observed in infants when they begin to drink cow's milk. At the same time, an increase in the number of eosinophils indicates the body's sensitivity to all manifestations of foreign proteins. Additionally, a similar reaction is manifested during the intake of various drugs. In addition, eosinophilia is sometimes evidence of intrauterine infections.
- Helminthic invasion. All parents should constantly monitor their children, especially if they have no appetite, or they suddenly begin to be capricious. Very often this is evidence that the child has worms.
Sometimes eosinophilia becomes a sign of imbalance that occurs during work processes occurring inside the bone marrow. Such a condition provoke a variety of diseases, mainly infectious, as well as having a different etiology.
What measures need to be taken?
First of all, specialists conduct a detailed biochemical analysis to determine the disease that causes the increase of eosinophils in the blood. Also, if necessary, use such diagnostic methods:
- set the amount of liver enzymes and proteins;
- a general analysis of urine and feces, where there may be worms or their eggs;
- to confirm allergic rhinitis take a smear from the nose and make an x-ray of the lungs;
- if it is known that the joint is affected by rheumatoid arthritis, then a puncture is taken;
- sometimes prescribed bronchoscopy.
Hematologist deals with the treatment of eosinophilia. It is not isolated as an independent pathology, because it is necessary to take measures to eliminate the disease, provoking an increase in the number of eosinophils.
There are many different methods of treating eosinophilia, and their choice is affected by the severity of the pathology, its varieties, the patient's age, general condition, and concomitant diseases.
As you can see, there are many reasons for increasing the level of eosinophils in the blood. Of course, only a doctor can make an accurate diagnosis. And the patient's task is to take care of your body, follow the recommendations of the doctor and not self-medicate. Be healthy!