Curiosity was always characteristic of a person, especially an enthusiastic science. The greatest interest has always been to the work of his own body. Since ancient times, people have wanted to look into the unknown, and learn how the organs and systems of the body work. Over time, the study of anatomy has progressed very far, the opportunity to literally look inside - endoscopy.
Translated from the Greek, endoscopy translates as "intrasight." In the medical dictionary, it is defined as an instrumental method for studying internal organs using special instruments - endoscopes.
Modern endoscopes are long flexible tubes that can be made of plastic or iron, with a camera lens at the end. The endoscope can combine several instruments - an optical one, which allows the doctor to get an overview of the internal organs, special tips designed for biopsy - the collection of a small piece of tissue for further histological examination.
Endoscopy is the general name of the diagnostic method, and depending on the study body, the name of the procedure will change. Endoscopy of the nasal cavity - rhinoscopy, bowel endoscopy - colonoscopy, the most well-known endoscopy option - esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EFGDS), or colloquial swallowing.
The technique allows a sufficiently detailed study of the mucous membrane and the lumens of the organs. With the advent of this method of research, the diagnosis of such diseases as peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer, colon polyps, etc., has become much easier.
In addition, endoscopy allows not only to examine and take tissues for analysis, but also to carry out surgical interventions. These are minimally invasive methods that can significantly reduce the postoperative period and speed up patient recovery. For example, using endoscopy, laparoscopic removal of the gallbladder, or surgery in the field of gynecology is performed.
Capsular Endoscopy: Study Description
Capsular endoscopy is a modern method for studying the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, which allows visualizing areas of the intestine that are inaccessible to other methods - colonoscopy, gastroscopy.
The whole procedure consists in swallowing a special capsule by the patient, which naturally passes through the digestive tract - the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and then leaves the body in a natural way. While the capsule moves along the digestive tract, the state of the mucous membrane takes place. The results obtained are transmitted wirelessly to the receiving device, which is constantly on the patient's belt. In the end, it turns out the video, which evaluates the doctor. For these reasons, the method is also called videocapsular endoscopy.
A significant advantage of using this method is the absence of discomfort during the study. The procedure is very informative and absolutely painless. The capsule itself is small in size, literally a pill. But this small device is equipped with a video camera and a battery that can withstand a load of 3 frames per second for 11 hours.
Indications for the procedure are hidden bleeding, regular abdominal distention, diarrhea and malabsorption syndrome, suspicion of cancer tumors, their research, etc.
Among the contraindications are states such as intestinal obstruction, dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing). It is not recommended to conduct a study in patients with cardiac stimulants and other medical implants. The number of contraindications also includes pregnancy, epilepsy, etc.
Endoscopy of the nasopharynx: indications and contraindications
- To date, this type of research is used to diagnose almost all ENT diseases. The indications for this type of research are the presence of nasal bleeding, pain in the nose, difficulty breathing and swallowing, apnea (snoring), etc. In addition, the technique allows to determine the presence of polyps, inflammation in the nasopharynx and sinuses.
- The camera, which is located at the end of the endoscope, allows you to view all the structures of the nasal cavity and mucous membrane with a thirtyfold increase. In the ENT practice, endoscopy is also used for surgical operations.
- There are no absolute contraindications to the procedure. But without fail, the doctor must be informed about the presence of an allergy to anesthetics and a tendency to nosebleeds. The procedure does not require additional training, it is usually well tolerated by patients, even children.
Intestinal endoscopy: what is it?
For the study of the intestine, such methods of endoscopy as colonoscopy, rectomanoscopy and videocapsular endoscopy, which was described above, are used.
Rectomanoscopy allows examining the rectum and the lower part of the sigmoid colon, that is, inspect the intestinal mucosa at a level of 20–35 cm from the anus. This method allows to detect cicatricial contractions, tumors, ulcers. The device makes it possible to perform a biopsy and electrocoagulation of a rectal polyp, or already to remove it.
Colonoscopy as a method, similar to rectomanoscopy, but allows you to explore the entire colon, and not only its lower parts.
Preparing for these types of research is very important. If you do not follow a certain diet and not enough clean the intestines, the procedure can be suspended and postponed for another time. The presence of feces can significantly reduce the quality of the study and affect its results.
In advance, 2 days before the procedure, it is necessary to go on a diet, if there is a tendency to constipation, the diet should begin in 3 to 4 days. From the diet it is necessary to exclude foods that cause bulky stools and flatulence. Before colonoscopy, it is necessary to abandon fruits, fresh vegetables, some types of cereals (barley, oatmeal, millet), seeds, nuts, legumes, carbonated drinks and milk. The diet should be made up of low-fat varieties of meat, boiled poultry, fish, clear broths, dairy products, etc. A day before the manipulation it is necessary to start cleansing the intestines - laxatives and cleansing enemas.
Endoscopy is a unique type of research that allows you to look inside the human body and find the problem, if any. The most important thing is to properly prepare for the procedure and trust the competent specialist, because any unqualified intervention in the body can have serious consequences.