Problems with immunity in children can lead to some diseases. So the most frequent problem in children is bronchial asthma. Usually the first symptoms appear at the age of 2-3 years. However, there are preventive measures that help reduce the frequency of attacks and alleviate the symptoms of the disease.
Bronchial asthma in children: symptoms
In fact, asthma is an allergic inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. It leads to spasms and increased secretion of mucus, which then turns into sputum. Edema also occurs. All this contributes to the manifestation of typical symptoms in asthmatics.
The child becomes difficult to breathe, he feels heaviness in the chest. The kid can cough badly. Sometimes with sputum. According to scientists, the exhalation of a child with asthma is 2 times longer than that of a healthy baby. These data serve as an illustration of how it is difficult for him to breathe during an attack.
The mechanism of the disease is very simple. Body cells begin to secrete histamine. Its synthesis is usually associated with a reaction to allergens. Histamine enters the bloodstream. The bronchi expand and make breathing difficult - breathing in is easy, and breathing out becomes difficult. As a result, oxygen metabolism in the lungs is disturbed. The carbon dioxide produced does not come out with exhalation.
The main symptoms of bronchial asthma include:
- Rattling in the chest
- Difficulty inhaling and exhaling in children under 3 years
- Inability to speak during an asthma attack
- Convulsive cough, sputum production
- The acquisition of the chest barrel shape during an attack
- Pallor of the skin
Symptoms of asthma begin to appear only in the case when the patency of the bronchi decreases by about 20%. This suggests that treatment of the disease and adherence to preventive measures should be long before the baby starts the first attacks.
It is believed that prevention contributes to a greater extent to reduce the manifestation of bronchial asthma in children. Scientists have proved that the disease can not occur only because of genetic factors. More than 60% of patients with asthma occur in the presence of the disease in the next of kin and adverse environmental conditions.
For example, bronchial asthma can occur if a woman continues to smoke during pregnancy. Therefore, during childbirth, it is so important to give up bad habits. It is also believed that if the future mother has an allergy to something, then during pregnancy it should be observed not only by the gynecologist, but also by the allergist. Also, women in the position should not eat foods that can provoke food allergies in the baby. These include chocolate, honey, nuts, citrus fruits, strawberries.
Prevention of bronchial asthma in children is carried out immediately after the birth of the child. The main task of parents is to try to make sure that he does not develop an allergy to anything, and the immune system is strong.
To start in the room support the frequency. Dust rubbed every day to avoid dust mites. Better the first time to do without carpets. Soft toys should be rinsed every day in hot water. Some parents freeze them, believing that ticks die this way.
In the first time it is better not to start cats. You can get a pet when the baby grows up, and you will know for sure that he does not have asthma.
Also, asthma prevention includes a normal psychological climate in the family. Constant stress also leads to attacks. Many parents try to create a "greenhouse" regime for asthma. This can only worsen the condition of the child and even lead to disability. The best option is an active lifestyle. Few people know that many sportsmen suffered from asthma in childhood. Physical activity will cope with the disease, strengthening the lungs and chest.
You can smooth the symptoms with the help of climate. Asthmatics are advised to spend more time at sea. So before the revolution, doctors often prescribed trips to Yalta for them. Also a beneficial effect has a visit to the salt caves. At home, you can recreate similar conditions with a special salt lamp.
Treatment of bronchial asthma
It is important to know not only how to properly treat asthma in children, but also to learn to recognize the approaching attack. This will help alleviate the discomfort of the child. So the symptoms that precede the attack can begin to appear within a day or a few hours. The kid may begin to be capricious, talk too much or, conversely, becomes locked up and silent, experiencing apathy.
Before an attack of bronchial asthma, a rash like a urticaria appears on the body of a child. He can scratch his neck and nose. The child often sneezes and coughs a little. Usually, treatment in this situation is prescribed by a doctor. Inhalers and some medications may be used. It is worth remembering what to do during an attack is impossible, but what can be.
- Keep calm. Give your baby the necessary medicine. Never use hot inhalations over steam.
- Try to psychologically support the child. Do not fuss, say that the discomfort will end soon. So he learns not to be afraid of suffocation.
- Make hot baths for arms and legs. Put a heating pad on your back. You can use hot cans. From mustard plaster should be abandoned, because they will provoke a new attack.
- Give the child tea without jam or lemon
- Often, in the treatment of asthma attacks, an elimination diet comes to the rescue. Its essence is that the products included in the diet, do not provoke an allergic reaction. A sample menu is as follows: chicken, rabbit meat, beef, zucchini, cabbage, potatoes, pasta. Vegetables and fruits should be of any color except red. Tea should be given without jam or lemon.
Usually, a child is transferred to such a diet during an exacerbation. Diet lasts about 2 weeks. Then in the menu gradually introduce 1 products that cause allergies.
Many doctors believe that children with asthma should not be forced to eat what they do not want. They can, at the subconscious level, recognize products that will worsen their condition.
In order to reduce the frequency of asthma attacks. It is necessary to adhere to preventive measures:
- Do not leave the child in the room in which there is a repair.
- If possible, try not to use feather pillows and blankets. Ticks are inflamed in them.
- On the mattress, pillows, blankets should be tight removable covers.
- Pay attention to the quality of inhalers. There are devices that control the dosage of the drug. Also in pharmacies special devices are sold that turn medicines into small droplets. They, in turn, are much better penetrate into the bronchi, than drugs from inhalers, sprays.
Bronchial asthma in children occurs because of a possible hereditary predisposition and poor conditions around. In order not to provoke the development of the disease, it is necessary to protect the child from allergens. To do this, they do a wet cleaning in the house, clean the carpets and refuse to house pets. Asthma can be prevented by physical exertion, an active lifestyle, seaside recreation, and visiting salt caves.