A woman’s health depends on many factors. And, unfortunately, it is difficult to prevent the development of certain diseases. One of the frequent pathological disorders in the mucous membranes of the uterus is called "adenomyosis." Symptoms and treatment are determined depending on the stages of the disease and the likely consequences.
Characteristic of the disease
Adenomyosis is an inflammatory process triggered by a disruption in the activity of the glands. This disease is characterized by the penetration of the endometrium (uterine lining) into the uterine muscles and its growth there. As a result, the normal functioning of the system is disrupted, hormonal failure occurs. The clinical picture is complemented by a decrease in immune protection and a number of painful symptoms.
Before talking about the symptoms and treatment of adenomyosis, it is worth figuring out how and why the disease begins. In the first case, the menstrual blood along with the endometrium is in the fallopian tubes. In another case, the disease develops from the basal layer of the endometrium.
The most susceptible adenomyosis group is women aged 35-40 years. The exact cause of the relationship has not been established, but doctors suggest that the body’s resistance to adverse effects can decrease with age. In addition, there are such provoking factors:
- stress and nervous tension;
- excessive exercise;
- genetic predisposition;
- negative UV exposure;
- mechanical injuries, surgery on the uterus and other interventions.
There are the following forms of adenomyosis, which can develop both separately and in parallel in the same patient:
- diffuse form affects large areas of uterine muscle tissue;
- focal covers small areas; is the simplest form of the disease;
- nodular form manifests itself in the formation of nodes similar to myoma.
It should also clarify the difference between adenomyosis and endometriosis. The diseases are extremely similar in nature - they are caused by the spread of the endometrium in areas that are not characteristic of it. Adenomyosis is also often called internal genital endometriosis. Moreover, the disease has many of the same symptoms. However, endometriosis proceeds and is treated much more difficult, it can spread to other internal organs. As for adenomyosis, its course is localized only in the muscle layers of the uterus.
Symptoms of uterine adenomyosis
Diagnosis and treatment of pathological processes in the uterus should be carried out as early as possible. That is why every woman, especially at risk, should be guided in the symptoms of a disease such as adenomyosis.
Among the symptoms of the disease are such manifestations:
- uncharacteristic discharge from the vagina, in particular, dark brown color;
- premenstrual syndrome, mainly moderate and severe;
- too heavy menstruation - occur in 40% of patients with adenomyosis;
- pain on the eve of menstruation;
- disruptions in the menstrual cycle, usually its reduction;
- changes in the size and shape of the uterus (this symptom is determined after appropriate studies);
- painful sensation during intercourse.
Getting into the muscle layers of the uterus, the endometrium expands, causing inflammation. Often this disease becomes a provocateur of infertility. That is why it is important to regularly undergo examination by a gynecologist and closely monitor the specific manifestations of the reproductive system.
The diagnosis is made after carrying out such activities as gynecological examination, ultrasound of the pelvic organs, analysis of the vaginal microflora and a number of other targeted measures.
Treatment of uterine adenomyosis - drugs or operation?
Ways to get rid of the disease are divided into two main areas - therapeutic and surgical. The choice of treatment is influenced by the following factors:
- severity of symptoms;
- age of the patient;
- the presence of concomitant diseases;
- the desire of women in the future to have children.
Drug treatment of adenomyosis includes taking drugs that affect hormones and the immune system. As a rule, the duration of therapy is 2-3 months. However, the treatment plan is formed individually, depending on the patient's condition. If the pain in adenomyosis in a patient is mild, they often resort to the use of OTC drugs. Severe pains are eliminated with conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Painful and too intense menstruation is treated with the help of hormonal drugs prescribed by the doctor on an individual basis. These medicines have shown effectiveness in the fight against infertility caused by adenomyosis. Often, after 5-6 weeks from the start of taking the medication, the hormones return to normal, the menstrual cycle also returns to normal.
Surgical intervention is resorted to in the event that therapeutic treatment has not yielded results. This method is aimed at eliminating the foci of inflammation, as well as at restoring normal forms and sizes of the uterus.
How to operate with this disease?
Today they use such methods of surgical removal of formations that appeared as a result of adenomyosis:
- open method - operation to remove the uterus;
- laparoscopic - elimination of foci of inflammation;
- electrocoagulation - removal of formations using electric current;
- embolization - an operation in which blood vessels associated with tumors overlap;
- ablation is the destruction of the inner layer of the uterus in the case of the superficial location of inflammation foci.
The effectiveness of the operation depends on the degree and form of tissue damage. A smaller number of inflamed areas means a more successful treatment outcome. Recovery after surgery lasts about a week. The next few months, the patient must undergo a pelvic exam every 7-10 days.
Uterine adenomyosis is a dangerous gynecological disease with serious consequences. Prevent the development of severe forms and time to start treatment will help knowledge of the symptoms of the disease. Treatment in the early stages is particularly effective, does not lead to the need for surgical intervention. Be attentive to your health - and big problems can get round.