Today is our story about drugs. Rather, not about drugs in general, but about those that cause many questions and disputes. Of course, we will talk about antibiotics. And we will tell you about such varieties as the 3rd generation cephalosporins in tablets.
What are cephalosporins?
Cephalosporins belong to the group of semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics derived from "cephalosporin C" produced by the cephalosporium Acremonium cephalosporin. Chemically, they resemble penicillins. The bactericidal effect of beta-lactam antibiotics is based on inhibiting the synthesis of the cell wall of the bacteria. unstable cell membrane.
Traditionally, cephalosporins are classified by generation, from first to fifth, which correspond to release dates and to some extent their scope. However, it is more expedient to distinguish such drugs in accordance with their kinetic properties and spectrum of activity.
Oral cephalosporins, regardless of the generation to which they belong, have very many similarities. Consider them.
While the kinetic parameters, for example, plasma absorption and half-life, differ slightly from one substance to another, all cephalosporins remain unchanged and are mostly eliminated by the kidneys. Therefore, in severe renal insufficiency, it is recommended to reduce the dose of such drugs.
Indications for use
The main indications are the same for all oral cephalosporins. In ambulatory practice, they are mainly used in the treatment of infections of the respiratory tract, including otitis. Also, these drugs are used in urinary infections.
Of course, the stability of existing pathogens to some antibiotics is important here. However, to date, there are no convincing data showing that one of the oral cephalosporins is superior in the practice of using another. Moreover, all their available forms are favorable for use by children.
As a rule, cephalosporins are relatively safe drugs. On average, only about 10% of patients receiving oral cephalosporins complained of adverse reactions. The most common of these are:
- gastrointestinal symptoms, especially diarrhea;
- nausea, vomiting, and various abdominal symptoms;
- cephalosporins can sporadically cause pseudomembranous enterocolitis;
- skin reactions, such as rash, urticaria, pruritus, occur in about 1% of patients;
- less commonly, side effects include neurological symptoms, in particular, headache, changes in hematological parameters, and a slight increase in transaminases.
Allergic reactions to oral cephalosporins are rare, and then only in people who suffer from penicillin allergy.
As other antibiotics, oral cephalosporins of the 3rd and 4th generation tablets can reduce the effectiveness of oral contraceptives and vaccines. All oral cephalosporins, if clearly necessary, can be prescribed to pregnant women.
Description of individual cephalosporins 3 generations
On the one hand, third-generation cephalosporins have a high stability with respect to keta-lactamase. They have good activity and attitude of E. coli. Also, pneumococci are usually sensitive to them. for example, to treat skin and soft tissue infections.
The list of 3rd generation cephalosporins in tablets includes the following effective drugs:
"Cefamet". This drug can be considered as a typical representative of third-generation cephalosporins. Respirations to its use, like other cephalosporins, are infections of the respiratory and urinary tract.
"Cefix". The tool has the same antibacterial spectrum of action as Cefetamet. The drug is indicated for respiratory diseases of the throat, nose, ear, urinary tract infections and acute uncomplicated gonoria. According to various studies, it is used more often than other oral cephalosporins, side effects, in particular, an increase in the number of cases of diarrhea.
"Cefodox". This drug has the same antimicrobial spectrum as other third-generation cephalosporins. Indications for its use are respiratory and urinary tract infections, as well as uncomplicated gonorrhea. It should be noted that anti-inflammatory drugs interfere with the absorption of the drug.
Cephalosporins 4 and 5 generations appeared relatively recently. A distinctive feature of the latest generation of beta-lactam antibiotics is that they are introduced into the body, bypassing the digestive tract, that is, by parenteral means. This allows you to eliminate their interaction with intestinal microflora. That is why cephalosporins of the 5th generation in tablets are not currently produced.
The most widely used drugs of the newest generations are:
"Cefepime"- 4th generation cephalosporin for deep intramuscular use. In the event of a life threatening patient, intravenous infusion of the drug is performed.
"Zefter" - bactericidal and water-soluble cephalosporin 5th generation antibiotic. The drug has activity against many microorganisms that are resistant to penicillin antibiotics. It is contraindicated in persons under 18 years of age.
Oral cephalosporins of different generations are considered well-tolerated and effective drugs. A wide antibacterial spectrum of action and low risks of side effects allow them to be used in the treatment of various infections.