Hyperpigmentation is one of the common problems that women face. Pigment spots occur in some areas of the skin as a result of an increase in the amount of melanin. Depending on the degree of pigment penetration into the skin, yellowish or light brown (pigmentation of the surface layers of the epidermis) and dark brown spots, often rising above the skin surface (pigmentation of the deep layers of the epidermis), differ. .
There are pigment spots on the face: causes
Pigment spots appear under the influence of various causes. The most common are:
- the presence of internal diseases (diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidneys, genital organs);
- exposure to ultraviolet rays during prolonged exposure to the sun or frequent visits to the solarium;
- the use of cosmetics that increase the photosensitivity of the skin (some components of ointments, creams, perfumes, lime oil, bergamot, etc.);
- skin injury due to improper use of scrubs, peels, squeezing acne, blackheads, unsuccessful salon procedures, etc .;
- disruption of the usual balance of hormones in a woman’s body due to pregnancy;
- age over 45 years;
- vitamin deficiency (vitamin C, folic acid);
- genetic predisposition;
- drug abuse.
There are several types of pigment spots.
- Freckles are small specks of yellowish-brown color, appearing mainly in open areas of the body, most often on the face, under the influence of sunlight.
- Lentigo - pigmented areas that occur in elderly people on those parts of the body (hands, face, forearms) that are regularly exposed to the sun.
- Chloasma - irregular spots caused by hormonal fluctuations in the body of young women (pregnancy, taking oral contraceptives). Most often, such defects of the skin disappear after giving birth or after discontinuation of pills, when hormonal levels are restored.
- Birthmarks (nevi) are small pigmented areas with clearly defined edges. They may be congenital or acquired throughout life. However, they require special attention, being benign tumors, under adverse conditions can turn into malignant ones.
- Vitiligo is a disease, presumably due to a disruption of the endocrine system and characterized by the disappearance of melanin in certain areas of the skin and the appearance of white spots of various shapes and sizes. In some people, areas affected by vitiligo may be almost invisible, in others they cover the whole body.
How to get rid of pigmentation on the face?
Before trying to get rid of blemishes on your face, you need to undergo a comprehensive medical examination, since hyperpigmentation may be due to some disease, without treatment of which cosmetic products will not bring the desired result. In addition, the appointment of certain procedures depends on the skin phototype and the degree of penetration of the pigment spot, which is also determined by experts.
Correction of pigmented areas of the skin is a long process that requires an integrated approach, including home treatment, the use of sunscreens, whitening creams and salon procedures selected by a doctor depending on the skin phototype, the period of the year and the level of pigment occurrence.
Whitening the face of age spots: ways
In cosmetology use bleaching creams with special medical substances. Hydroquinone has a good effect, however, being a toxic substance, with prolonged use, it can cause contact dermatitis and skin atrophy. The duration of application of creams containing hydroquinone should not exceed two to three months. The use of products with this element is not recommended for pregnant and lactating women.
Azelaic acid, a natural antioxidant that is used in the treatment of acne and skin disorders associated with impaired pigmentation, is effective in combination with other clarifying agents.
Tretinoin prevents the damaging effects of free radicals, reduces the photosensitivity of the skin, but can cause irritation, so it is not recommended for pregnant women. Attributin slows down the synthesis of melanin and prevents skin pigmentation.
Inhibiting the formation of pigmentation and whiten the skin can substances contained in some plants.. Particularly popular are parsley, lemon and cucumber, juice which can be used in lotions. No less effective and facial masks, including various components.
- Parsley masks.2 tbsp. l crushed parsley leaves are applied to cleansed skin, avoiding the eyelid area, for 20-30 minutes, then rinsed with cold water. A mixture of 1 tbsp. l crushed parsley leaves, 1 tbsp. l honey and the same amount of lemon juice is applied to the face for 15 minutes.
- Parsley juice, milk, sour cream or yogurt are mixed in equal proportions, the face is smeared with the resulting composition, washed off after 15 minutes.
- Lemon-honey mask. 2 tbsp. l honey is mixed with pressed and filtered juice of 1 lemon, the mixture is applied to the face for 15-20 minutes.
- Cucumber mask. Fresh cucumber crushed and mixed with 1 tbsp. l any nourishing cream.
- Creams and masks used at home should be applied to clean skin, avoiding the areas around the eyes and lips. It is the best of all to carry out the bleaching procedures in the evening since it allows to save skin from influence of sunshine. At the end of the procedure it is useful to apply a nourishing cream.
Removal of age spots on the face: medical methods
To remove age spots on the hypocritical use peels. Peeling - superficial controlled active peeling of the skin, leading to skin leveling and a decrease in the intensity of pigmentation.
The procedure is based on various substances affecting the skin. Distinguish surface, surface-median and median peelings. When the surface peels the upper layers of the epidermis. Such peels include glycolic acid, mandelic acid and other fruit acids. Surface applied 1 time per week for 1-2 months.
Surface median peelings are used to remove pigmentation in the middle layers of the epidermis. These are compositions containing salicylic, lactic, retinic acid.
Median peels penetrate to the basal layers of the epidermis, so they must be used 1-2 times a year, because they are based on trichloroacetic acid.
Dr. method of removing hyperpigmentation - mesotherapy, which allows to deliver the necessary preparations with a whitening effect to the dermis. When administered intracutaneously, a stock of such substances is created, ensuring long-term preservation of the result. However, according to a number of cosmetologists, this procedure should be carried out before the beginning of the spring period to prevent the appearance of pigment spots.
Phototherapy - a selective effect on biological tissue with intense pulsed light, which allows you to affect the pigments without damaging the skin and surrounding tissues. First, the pigment spots darken, and then peeled off for a week, and the skin color is evened out.
Laser polishing of the face helps to get rid of age spots by removing the surface layers of the skin and activating the repair processes in the spent zones.
Cryotherapy is used when pigment spots are small. During this procedure, the pigment spots are treated with liquid nitrogen, which leads to skin lightening.
Prevention of pigment spots
The best way to prevent hyperpigmentation is to limit sun exposure to the skin. It is advisable to avoid going out in the hours of greatest solar activity (from 12 to 16 hours of the day). If you need to go out, do not forget about hats and clothing with long sleeves. Open skin should be lubricated with sunscreen. In sunny weather, you need to eat more fruits and vegetables that contain large amounts of vitamins C and E.
To get rid of pigment spots on the skin, you can consult a dermatologist or try to deal with the problem with the help of cosmetic bleaching agents or popular recipes. Because stains are difficult to remove, pay due attention to prevention. Protect your skin from aggressive sunlight, watch out for proper nutrition.