Teaching a child is a difficult process, and each parent faces certain difficulties. Few people manage to quickly absorb the material, because all children are individual. In pedagogy and various branches of medicine there is such a thing as dyslexia. Moreover, it is a collective and general term that describes the primary reading disorders.
In order to say with certainty that a child has certain disorders, it is necessary to examine his intellectual abilities, performance and speech development in general. Only after studying this aggregate can we talk about dyslexia.
The exact and satisfying all aspects of the term "dyslexia" is not, for these reasons, the general extent of the problem is not known. But most often this violation is detected among boys, but this does not mean that gender is a predisposing factor.
What is dyslexia: causes
- At the heart of dyslexia and the disruption of the phonological process, poor recognition ability lies. The baby just can't remember the sounds. Ailment can be characterized as a violation of the understanding of the text and its writing. In the future, this contributes to the formation of problems with the memorization of information by ear, the formation of speech, the selection of suitable words, etc.
- In the formation of dyslexia is of great importance hereditary factor. If a parent has or has a reading disorder or a disorder in the acquisition of school skills, the child is at risk.
- The study of people with this disorder revealed functional changes in the brain. For these reasons, experts have come to the conclusion that dyslexia is a consequence of cortical dysfunction due to congenital anomalies of the development of brain structures and the nervous system as a whole. In addition, the reasons for the occurrence of the disease assign a role and violation of the process of combining certain parts into a single whole - integration.
- Most experts associate dyslexia with the left hemisphere of the brain and impaired work in those areas that are responsible for speech recognition. An important role is played by changes in coordinated work between these areas due to the disconnection. So dysfunctions in the area of the angular gyrus of the brain, the middle occipital region and the right hemisphere can cause problems with the recognition of words.
- A child may have other reading problems that are significantly different from dyslexia. Usually such violations are caused by various kinds of difficulties in understanding speech. Child's visual problems and abnormal eye movements when reading cannot be attributed to dyslexia. But these nuances, one way or another, still affect the study of words.
Dyslexia: main symptoms
Symptoms of dyslexia are very diverse. This violation can be expressed by delayed speech development, the formation of various kinds of difficulties in memorizing letters and numbers, sometimes even colors. Dyslexia in children is manifested by difficulties in the combination of sounds, the rhyming of words. In addition, they can not determine in which part of the word are those or other sounds.
Children with dyslexia can confuse sounds in words and reverse them. This is due to various kinds of difficulties in memorizing and restoring this image in memory. But, however, this same symptom can be the norm in children under 8 years of age. In order to make an accurate forecast and identify the defect, it is necessary to consult a specialist.
An early sign of dyslexia is a delay in correct word reprimand, or fluctuation-delay before speaking. A frequent early symptom is a violation of short-term auditory memory and auditory consistency.
Dyslexia in children: diagnosis
As practice shows, for most babies, dyslexia is not diagnosed until admission to kindergarten or school. It is mandatory to study children who have a delay in passive speech, who do not catch up with their peers by the time of the 1st stage of education.
If a violation is suspected, children should be examined to identify reading skills and the level of general speech health. In addition, you need a psychological examination to identify the features of the child and those forms of education that will be the most acceptable. Psychological research is conducted to determine the emotional aspects that can affect reading disorders.
The study must necessarily collect a family history, which will include the presence of mental disorders and the level of emotional climate in the family.
A medical examination is also necessary to identify problems of hearing or vision in a child. Research with a neurologist will help identify neuropsychiatry immaturity or minor neurological disorders.
Ways to correct dyslexia
Children with dyslexia cannot achieve a sufficient level of literacy. Unfortunately, this problem remains for life. But many babies still develop functional reading skills. The main goal of dyslexia correction is the adaptation of the learning process. In the course of this, it is necessary to teach the child to recognize words and highlight certain components of words. This is achieved through direct and indirect learning.
Methods of direct learning are to use special phonetic techniques separately from teaching a child to read. Indirect learning combines special phonetic methods and reading training programs. During the process, various techniques can be used: the alpha-sound method, the method of reading by syllables, or reading whole words and sentences.
After it is recommended to use the methods with exposure to several senses at once. The technique consists in the study of whole words and the simultaneous perception of visual, auditory and tactile sensations in order to learn sounds, words and whole sentences.
To teach a child to distinguish the constituent parts of words, they use methods of mixing sounds in order to form words. The division of words into parts, and the method of determining the location of the sound in the word can also be applied.
In order for the child to be able to highlight the components and understand the text, it is necessary to ask leading questions, to teach to highlight the main idea, certain details. To consolidate the material you need to use reading with conclusions.
When dyslexia most important is not to miss the first symptoms. To achieve this goal, parents need to be attentive and strictly follow the process of learning and development of the child. Moreover, the modern market of services offers a wide range of developmental schools, where experienced teachers work to help you cope with this problem.