Pepper was originally characteristic of South and Central Africa. It can still be found there, just not cultivated, but wild. Then this vegetable came to America, and later to our country.
In Russia, the southern regions are favorable for this crop, since pepper is a heat-loving plant. Pepper can be divided by varietal characteristics, as well as its nutritional purpose. In the latter case, it is divided into sweet pepper, it is also called vegetable and spicy or spicy. The composition of sweet pepper is different in that it contains up to ninety percent of water, up to seven percent of sugars and up to two percent of proteins. There is a lot of vitamin C in pepper. According to its content, this culture is the leader among all vegetables. In addition to vitamin C, rich in vitamins P and B, as well as carotene. Saturated with iron, zinc, organic acids. The taste of pepper is due to the presence in it of special essential oils. Pepper is an annual plant in our country, and in tropical countries it is a perennial. Seeds of pepper after planting sprout in seven to nine days. If the temperature of the soil drops to minus, the pepper will die, and if it fluctuates, its development will slow down.
Pepper has a good, strong root system. It is basically located in the top layer of soil. Roots will grow very well before the period of formation and formation of the fetus. The stem of pepper is soft in the first periods of plant life. Later, he grows coarse.
Coloring in the period of maturity and the size of the fetus
Pepper acquires a different color depending on the variety and ripeness. It can be yellow, dark green, light green, white during technical ripeness. And get red, dark red, orange - red, yellow color to its full maturity. Peppers can be as long as twenty to twenty five centimeters in length and gain a mass of from five to two hundred grams. Such a weight of pepper is not the limit. He can go and more large. Of course, everything, again, depends on the varietal affiliation, as well as on the sufficient amount of nutrients in the soil, on how much the pepper receives heat and on exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
To the light pepper, well, just extraordinarily demanding. It needs an abundance of solar illumination from the moment of emergence and until they fully mature. The lack of ultraviolet radiation will necessarily affect the decrease in yield in volumes and the reduction of the fetus, compared with, for example, last year’s crops or indicators of variety. Important is the humidity. The optimal rates are sixty to seventy percent. If the humidity is lower and the temperature is high, then such conditions will lead to the fall of the ovary.
Soil for pepper
A culture like pepper requires some kind of simple soil. Pepper will bring you a good harvest in light, humus-rich soil. It must be capable of providing seedlings with all the nutrients that are necessary for the growth and development of the plant.
Age of seedlings plays an important role. In order to realize the opportunity to grow seedlings in a heated greenhouse, you need a fifty-day pepper. For greenhouses that are not equipped with heating, it is better to take seventy-day plants. Seedlings for planting need a healthy and well-developed, with a thick (up to four millimeters) stem and a height of no more than twenty - twenty five centimeters. In the greenhouse, so to speak heated, it is possible to plant the pepper at the end of March - April, and at the one that does not have heating - at the beginning of May.
How to plant pepper?
As a rule, lovers plant forty to forty-five centimeters apart from each other, and provide inter-row spacing at intervals of fifty to sixty centimeters. Better landing to produce in the evening. Plants deepen into the soil to the first pair of sheets present on young seedlings. After planting, it is best to immediately put the pegs sixty centimeters high, so that later it will be possible to tie up the grown peppers when the weather is warm and good. Plus - minus in time it will be somewhere in the middle of June. However, even in summer, during night periods, we will not be able to create greenhouse conditions for pepper by covering it with a film for the whole night. Ten to twelve days the root system will take root. In order for the pepper to have enough oxygen, it is recommended to do a shallow loosening, and not to produce watering, but to control that the soil does not dry out. When the pepper reaches twenty-five centimeters, you need to pinch it, that is, remove the top of the main stem. After this not complicated procedure, the plant will begin to actively branch. Of all the shoots should be left only four - five top.
Water must be defended day and water the plants in the morning with warm water. Pepper should be “drunk” regularly, namely once every five to six days. Watering is useful to combine with dressing. If you use cold water, it will delay the process of ripening of the fruit, as the development of the plant will slow down.
Very popular among gardeners and gardeners. It will serve as a good decoration of the dining room or kitchen, at least, the decoration will look very original. Room pepper, as well as his fellow from the garden, prefers a warm place. It must be regularly aired. Homemade pepper blooms early in May. And all summer new and new flowers are formed. You can immediately observe on it and the presence of flowers and fruits, with different periods of development. Care for him is not difficult. Watering, feeding and airing - these are the three main conditions. If you grow peppers, so that it still yields a crop, then you need to pinch the tips of all the branches in the formation of the first ovaries. If there are many fruits, your pet will need help in the form of sticks - props. Propagate the decorative pepper can be seeds or cuttings. When the plant produces fruits in the form of pods, you can extract the seeds from them and use them for new sowing. How to choose the soil for home (decorative) pepper? You can take any nutritious land, but there is nothing better than a mixture of leaf, humus soil and sand. For its preparation, one should take leafy ground and humus twice as much as sand. The proportion will be two - two - one.
Appears at the time of sowing. Darkening or constriction of the neck of the root occurs. Sometimes you can see a gray patina. If the damage to the plant is strong, it will not survive. Pepper will continue to rot first on the roots, and then the disease will spread to the stem. To overcome the black leg, it is necessary to replace the affected land, since the disease remains in the ground. It should also be disinfected with bleach. The next seeding in the area where the diseased plants were present should not be thick. Weak peppers are better not to plant at all, select only strong seedlings.
Also a fungal disease. Scope of damage: stem, leaves and fruit. If the plant is there, then brown spots appear here - this is a sign of late blight. Around the brown spot you will see also a zone of pale green color. The greater the humidity, the more the disease develops. As a cure for such a harmful disease, you can use a solution of potassium permanganate or infusion of garlic. This infusion is prepared very simply, you need to take a hundred - one hundred fifty grams of crushed leaves or scales of bulbs and insist them in ten liters of water. Now you can spray.
It affects the stem closer to the root system. Fungal plaque appears on the stem, and inside the black solid formations, which then become soft and make it impossible to supply nutrients to the plant from the soil. To prevent the development of infection, it is necessary to maintain moderate soil moisture (especially in the first weeks after planting). Removal of dead leaves is also a good prevention method. When infestation will help watering with warm water and rubbing the affected areas, and dusting with powdered coal. Yes, pepper loves heat, but too warm air, and even if this air is stagnant, can lead to the defeat of a culture by aphids or spider mites, which are no less heat-loving.
Read also: How to sprinkle pepper in a greenhouse?
So take care of your plants, provide them with good care and get the proper return in the form of a bountiful harvest.