Grapes and other fruit or ornamental vines today can be found everywhere even in the middle lane. They, undoubtedly, will decorate the dacha, but will require a little attention. In particular, any climbing plant needs a special support called a trellis.
Trellis for climbing plants: how to choose?
At its core, a trellis can also be called stretched between supports, which often include simple high stakes, thin ropes, to which shoots cling. Such designs are suitable for 1-2 years, when the climbing plant is still young, and its weight is minimal. The farther, the stronger the shoots will grow, and they will not have enough space on the rope, it simply will not sustain them. Therefore, it is immediately desirable to attend to the construction of a long-term trellis.
For ornamental crops intended only to create a vibrant green wall, for example, climbing roses, a rather simple vertical structure made of tree branches or wooden slats 3 cm wide. Of them is a grid with sufficiently large cells (10 × 10), after which places of intersection necessarily sealed. For rails, these are small carnations, for branches - waxed thread.
Do not forget to sand the slats. If the grille is high and wide, you can make 3 copies, and then combine them. It will turn out to be a beautiful green arbor. Such a tapestry for light climbing plants usually implies its fixation in a frame, which is created from thick bars (3 cm), whose height can reach 2 m.
At their ends, either an antiseptic or bitumen, previously heated to a liquid state, is applied without fail. This will prevent rotting. Then to fix the bars in the ground dig holes, take the support of the tapestry, filled with rubble and poured cement.
An interesting variant of the floral trellis will be a semicircular fan design. Thin iron rods usually go to it, if a portable welding machine is available. Otherwise, you can use flexible branches in the amount of 7-9 pcs. They settle down like a fan, having a common base, where they are fastened together with a twine, diverging in a semicircle.
It is desirable to maintain symmetry about the invisible central axis. It is the same flexible arc from a longer branch, which fixes with hemp at the joints with the others. It is important to leave the base of the tapestry itself with a length of 10-15 cm so that it can be buried.
Mastering a single plane with a do-it-yourself tapper
Grape-like trellis is not enough - even ornamental varieties have considerable weight, and they greatly expand. Seasoned gardeners are leaning towards a monoplane trellis, suitable when there are only 2-3 grape bushes at the dacha. Each of them usually requires a separate trellis, taking into account the length of the shoots.
- A single-plane vertical design requires pipes made of asbestos or iron as supports. The diameter is recommended to pick up in 10 cm, but the length of the pipe varies from 3 to 4 m. It all depends on the grape variety that will take root on the trellis. An unambiguous plus of the support from asbestos is that it does not need to be concreted: you just need to deepen it by 1-1.5 m. From above you can simply pour construction foam. Square pipes that do not imply welding are also suitable: only building corners and screws are needed.
- The distance maintained between the pipes should be 3.5-4 m, while it is worth taking care to maintain their perfect vertical position. For this purpose, the tops of the supports are fastened with a thinner pipe laid parallel to the ground. Screws are used for fixing. And between them the wire, but not metal, and aluminum stretches. It is not subject to the formation of rust, which increases its durability. Good here and wire made of copper. Its definite plus is the formation of substances that kill the disease affecting grapes - mildew.
- The first row from the ground is recommended to be placed at a height of 20 cm. And the most preferable distance is 40 cm. The following can already be separated from each other by 30-40 cm. The wire itself is fixed to the support by drilling through holes in the pipe. This will allow to stretch the lines as smoothly as possible The diameter of the drill - up to 5 mm.
Two-plane and arc-shaped trellis for grapes
In larger vineyards, the use of a two-plane oblique trellis and an arc-shaped arched structure is practiced. The latter also has a decorative function and easily introduces covered garden areas into the plot.
In addition, a two-plane structure is an idea for the southern regions where the grapes do not need shelter. It can increase the load on the crop in relation to the volume of the crop, in addition, improved flow through. But working with the plant during harvesting will have to be done manually.
There are many versions of a two-plane trellis: it can be a T-shaped structure and a V-shaped one. The first is the easiest to create yourself, if there are no welding devices on hand.
All the same pipes as for the single-plane one are used. All the same height is maintained. But the transverse crossbeam is already a pipe length of 50-70 cm. The ends of the wire are fixed at its edges. Also 1 line will appear at a distance of 50 cm from the top. You can even make 2 or 3 cross bars, strengthening them with a distance of 50 cm from each other.
When building a V-shaped two-plane tapestry, the upper ends are spread by 90 cm, and the 1st line of the wire is stretched 50 cm from the ground. The length of the wire is taken in 6-8 m.
The arcuate (arched) design for grapes is able to give a zest to the garden: you will get a kind of covered area. In fact, in its fastening problems the least: the task of the gardener is only to acquire the arcs and dig holes in which their ends will be buried. In addition, these zones should be concreted afterwards: there is often too much weight on an arched trellis. And if it also performs the function of a gazebo or a living corridor, its fall is unacceptable.
Arcs are placed, the height of which is at least 2-2.5 m from the ground, at a distance of 3-4 m. As in previous versions, the wire is attached to them, fastened through drilled holes. From the ground, the first row should be raised 50 cm, no less. Between the rest, you can take a distance, as for a single-plane trellis: in fact, the arched is close to it.
Grape trellis: photos and tips
The height of the trellis depends not only on the length of the vine: it is also influenced by the factor of frost resistance of the variety. If the grapes do not require harboring and are well experienced even 32 degrees below zero, it can build a trellis with a height of 3.2 m. The distance is indicated from the ground: in this case the pipe itself may be all 5 m, as there is still a 1-1 depth. , 5 m.
Although the diameter of the pipe is specified at 10 cm for asbestos supports, experienced gardeners advise to narrow the boundaries to 2.8-5.7 cm. And the upper crossbar can be taken even with a diameter of 1.5 cm. At the same time, it will withstand all 100 kg of fruit bearing grapes without arching.
The hole, dug out for the deepening of the support, is taken in dimensions of 60 by 60, its depth starts from 80 cm, from which the lower 20 cm are filled with sand. The shape of the recess is a trapezoid, but the opposite, i.e. with the extension down. This will create one more obstacle to attempts to loosen the pipe and deviate from the vertical. And given the severity of the grapes, such precedents are inevitable.
If you do not want to use metal structures, you can make supports not from pipes, but from wood. For this purpose, an oak, ash or acacia is selected, i.e. any related to hard rock. Due to the weight of the culture that will have to endure. Of course, for ordinary ornamental climbing vines (for example, clematis), an alder with maple will do.
Each type of trellis has its own characteristics, which are important to consider when choosing a suitable construction for the garden. Try to objectively assess your own capabilities and nuances of a particular plant, before you begin to build a support. In this case, it will serve for many years.