In almost every area, in addition to vegetables and ornamental crops, fruit trees can be found. Most of them are apples and cherries, and sometimes plum. The plant is heat-loving, with many nuances in the care, however, many loved. There are many subtleties of planting plum and its further cultivation.
How to plant a plum in the spring?
Strictly speaking, it is possible to work with this tree both in spring and in autumn. However, the latter option is suitable only for the southern regions, where there is no cold winter capable of ruining the fragile seedling. Basically, the entire middle zone, especially Siberia and the Urals, is prepared for planting a plum in the spring in order to maximize the chances of its rooting and fruiting.
First you need to decide which of the ways to plant. In fact, there are as many as 3 of them: classical sowing, root shoots and grafting. In addition, they are grown plum and through grafting. What to choose? Simple sowing will not allow you to get the usual varietal plum, but then a tree will grow from it, onto which another variety can later be grafted. This culture is called "stock".
To this end, the plum stones should be washed and dried, then immersed in water and left to soak for 4-5 days. Moreover, the water changes daily. After the expiration of the stones are removed, dried and laid in a clean glass container with a lid. There they are able to wait in the wings for a long time, and they cannot be landed immediately. Six months before sowing it is necessary to mix them with barely moistened sand and keep it all these 6 months in it. The temperature of the air is to keep the minus 10 to 1 degree. These bones will be planted closer to May.
Much more successful is working with purchased seedlings, and one-year harvesting is not always used. This may be a two-year sapling. This method is considered basic and requires increased attention.
For grafting plums shoots from the tree are taken at the time of their color change to red. They are cut off necessarily from the uterine bush, the length of the cutting is usually 0.3-0.35 m. It is desirable that there should be more leaves: at least 2-3 pieces. On the same day, shoots should be placed in the water, where they will stay 1-1.5 weeks. This period will be the catalyst for root growth. After 10 days, the cuttings are moved to the ground.
The substrate is prepared from peat and sand, the proportion of them - 4: 1. Here there is an initial top dressing of plum, carried out by superphosphates dissolved in water. The whole period that roots will form, and its duration depends only on the variety, it is worth monitoring the air temperature. Its optimal boundaries are 24-30 degrees. It is necessary to prepare cuttings in autumn so that they can be planted in spring.
Planting plum spring seedlings: features
- Working with seedlings, as already mentioned, is the simplest and most frequently used method of growing plums of any variety. More recently, the cultivation of this fruit crop has become possible even in the regions of Siberia and the Urals, after the development of special frost-resistant varieties. But even in this situation, the spring planting wins in winter, because it ensures the safety of seedlings.
- The starting stage is the creation of a so-called excavation with a depth of 0.6 m, in which the tree will be planted. It is advisable to attend to them not on the landing day, but in advance. This recommendation is due to the need to make fertilizers that need time to infuse. Basically, its composition is simple: mineral supplements and a large proportion of humus. There will be no questions with the latter, but the following minerals are needed: potassium chloride and ammonium nitrate, supplemented with sand.
- If the soil itself is excessively acidified, the lime is introduced into it. And in case of calcium deficiency, it is enough just to add some egg shell. By itself, the substrate plum requires loose and fertile. This is its main requirement for the land.
- The area on the site selected for plum should be well lit by the sun and not have drafts. In addition, this crop will not tolerate other trees close to itself, especially those capable of obscuring it. For this reason, gardeners often plant plums along the fence, if it is not too high. And it is undesirable to place a tree in a lowland or an area constantly suffering from the stagnation of moisture. With this drought fruit culture will not suffer.
- An important point - the number of seedlings in the garden. Plum belongs to the category of cross-pollinated crops, as a result of which it always needs a pair on the site. Planted usually at least 2 trees, but not close. They require a free zone of 2-3 m. Moreover, it is desirable to choose each pollination participant from different varieties, but not to combine home and Chinese specimens. And all the plums on the site should be arranged according to scheme 4 by 2 m.
- When planting, a long stake is introduced into the pit, and the seedling itself must be placed in a recess so that after the roots are covered with soil, the neck is 5-7 cm above the surface. This is done taking into account the subsidence of the ground. If you forget about it, the bark will begin to sing, and this will negatively affect the yield of the tree. The stake of the seedling is fastened with a string to the coke, but you shouldn’t tighten it much: just hold it and save 15 cm of free space. It should be located from the support on the north side.
- With regard to the specific time of plum planting, it is different for each variety. The main rule is to engage in any transplants, including the initial landing, while the tree is at rest. Otherwise, stress will affect its fruiting, and further growth.
- Even at the time of working with a sapling it is important to check that the root system is healthy and not chapped. If this happens, she needs to spend several days in the water, which, as is the case with the bones, changes daily. There should be no damage on the trunk, and no curvature on the trunk.
Yellow plum: planting and care
Each variety has nuances in its cultivation and even the process of planting, however, the general rules for plum as a fruit crop remain the same. Yellow plum - the most common group that grows in the gardens of the middle band. Mostly this popularity is due to its winter hardiness.
The most important thing to observe is quality watering. Earlier it was mentioned about the inadmissibility of stagnant moisture, but the tree perceives even worse drought. At first, this is reflected in leaves that change color to yellow, then on fruits that gradually crack. Special emphasis on watering is done during fruit ripening, if summer is dry. There are 4-5 buckets of water per tree, it is necessary to pour it at the root, without touching the trunk. It is easy to understand whether additional water is needed in the sink: if the tree trunk has a moist soil, then you should not shed it in addition.
Fertilizing will also be made frequently. Although the main one occurs at the time of planting the tree, subsequently, at least once every 3 years compost should be applied to the soil. Superphosphate (50 g) and sulfurous potassium (20 g) are necessarily mixed with it. Their volumes are indicated for 1 sq.m. Compost should take 0.5 buckets. And every spring it is desirable to feed the plum with ammonium nitrate. The remaining fertilizers are applied according to the requirements of the soil, if it is necessary to bring about neutral pH balance or eliminate the deficiency of a certain element when it reflects on the health of the plum.
Among other fruit trees, the yellow plum is characterized by its uneven fruiting. To bring the system into a balanced state, experienced gardeners are engaged in thinning the ovaries in the spring and gaining strength in the initial stage of their growth.
Plum requires from the gardener certain skills during planting and care. It is necessary to properly plant the plant, monitor the moisture and quality of the soil, carry out timely feeding. But if you meet all the conditions, the culture of many varieties will be excellent fruit, even in areas with a fairly cold climate in the North and the Urals.