Onions - one of the most popular vegetable crops, which is added to a huge number of dishes. Many gardeners grow this vegetable, however, mainly green feathers are eaten. Meanwhile, if you plant it in spring, you can get a rich turnip crop, which is enough for a whole year. What are the features and secrets of growing planting onions on the head?
When to plant and how to prepare a place?
First you need to choose a place where you will grow this culture. Make it necessary in the fall. In deciding this question, it should be borne in mind that onions will grow very slowly if cucumbers, carrots or garlic “lived” on the bed before it. It is much better to give preference to the land on which tomatoes, zucchini, pumpkin, peas or potatoes were planted.
In addition, it must be remembered that the bow is very fond of sunlight. In the shade of the bulb may not be formed at all, and the feather will drag up for a long time, and then quickly put on weight. Place for planting onions should be moderately moist. This culture is not too fond of water, but in the hot and dry summer it will have to be watered regularly.
Most often planting onions on the head in the spring is made in late April - early May. Many gardeners are oriented at the beginning of flowering bird cherry. In any case, in order to get a good harvest, it is necessary to plant a vegetable when the temperature of the air in the street is stable and the soil warms up quite well.
Often gardeners are interested in whether it is possible to plant onions in the summer, for example, in July. Indeed, you can plant this vegetable at almost any time and on any soil, but only if your goal is to get a harvest of fresh greenery. By choosing the time for planting onions on the head should be taken very carefully. After all, if you plant this crop in the ground too early, when it does not even have time to warm up to at least 12-14 degrees, the whole bow can go to the arrow. If you wait for the summer heat, the bulbs will grow much slower, and you will not be able to get a rich harvest.
What varieties of onion is better to plant on the head?
The most common varieties of onion in Russia are:
- El Dorado;
Under the right growing conditions, from all these varieties one can get a rather rich harvest - up to 4-5 kg of heads from one square meter of land. Each of them differs from other special taste, as well as the speed of maturation and the possibility of long-term storage.
What is better to plant onions on the head - from seed or sevka?
The process of growing this vegetable from seed takes a long time. In the first year you need to grow onions from them, which will be stored at your home all winter. In the spring, after sorting and preparation, he is planted in the ground in order to receive a rich harvest of onions in the fall.
If you can’t wait so long and want to harvest onions next fall, you need to purchase pre-prepared onion sets. However, to buy a suitable sevok difficult, and many gardeners prefer to grow it on their own. This is especially true if you have found the perfect variety of onions for yourself and do not want to experiment.
Keeping sevok for future planting is also quite difficult. Small onions are very susceptible to the adverse effects of external factors, so some gardeners decide not to get involved in their independent cultivation.
How to prepare for landing?
As already mentioned, to begin preliminary preparation for planting onions should be even in the fall. It is necessary to dig up the soil on the chosen bed deep enough and fertilize it abundantly with organic fertilizers, for example, chicken manure, compost or manure, at the rate of 1.5-2 buckets per square meter of land. In addition, for each "square" of the earth will also have to make about 30 grams of potassium salts and superphosphate.
If you are going to plant seeds in the ground in order to get sevok, be prepared for the fact that they germinate quite hard. Before sowing, they must be prepared very well. To do this, the seeds are first poured with warm boiled water and left for 30-40 minutes. Then they should be put in a small bag of cotton and poured over with water at room temperature. In this form, the seeds must be kept for a day, changing the water every 3-4 hours. After that, they are wrapped in paper napkins, which must be kept moist at all times, and left until they hatch.
Planting onions on the head in the spring is carried out using a sevka. Regardless of whether you grew it yourself or bought it in a store, you need to sort it out and sort it by size. Sick or over-dried bulbs are immediately discarded, and the rest are planted in the ground, starting with the largest and finishing the process with the smallest. In the set-up party, there should be as many medium-sized onions as possible, because of them you can get the richest crop.
If you have prepared onion sets yourself and kept it in the cold, 2-3 weeks before planting, you must move it to a room temperature room. Immediately before planting the bulb, it should be kept at least 30-40 degrees Celsius for at least a day. After that sevka is placed in the water, preheated to 50 degrees, for 15-20 minutes, and then immediately moved to the cold. Finally, the final stage of preparation will be the treatment with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Planting onion Sevka and care for him
A bed prepared in advance is necessary to loosen and make grooves in it at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other. If you plant seeds, they must be positioned every 2 cm and buried to a depth of about 2 cm, too. Planting onions in the spring with a sevka is similar. Bulbs placed at a distance of 10-12 cm from each other to a depth of about 4 centimeters. After that, the soil should be watered with clean water and covered with sawdust or straw.
Initially, onions are watered from 1 to 2 times a week, depending on weather conditions. After 1.5-2 months, the frequency of watering is reduced - now this vegetable is sufficiently watered 1 time in 2 weeks, since the heads of the bulbs are ripening, and excessive moisture can only hinder them. Finally, after another 1-1.5 months, watering is stopped altogether. In addition, onions need to constantly weed from weeds.
Feed the onions on the head is much better folk remedies than the many fertilizers that can be purchased at the store. It is preferable to use cow manure, which must first be diluted with water in a ratio of 250 grams per bucket of water. This culture should be fertilized 3 times: initially - approximately 10 days after the appearance of the first shoots, then - after 3 weeks, and the last time - even 3 weeks after the previous one. Approximately 2 weeks before harvesting, watering, feeding, weeding and loosening stop completely, and the whole care of the crop during this period consists in removing the young shooters.
How to harvest and save the crop?
Harvest should be when the onion arrows begin to turn yellow and lie on the bed. If the outside air temperature is still high enough and there is no rain, it is better to leave the bulbs for a while right in the garden to let them dry. If precipitation regularly falls, onions need to be dug as quickly as possible, otherwise it will start to rot, and you will not be able to save even a small part of the crop. In this case, the drying is carried out in a bright, sunny room, which is regularly aired.
First, the onions are dug together with tops and husks, washed and left to dry. Then the stem is removed so that a small segment of about 5 cm in length remains with the bulb. It is also necessary to completely remove the husk so that a new one can form in its place. Next, the entire onion should be sorted out to select those heads, the neck of which has not fully dried out. They need to be eaten the very first. The remaining onions are gradually eaten, starting with the smallest and getting to the largest.
Dried and peeled onions cannot be stored in plastic bags. In order not to lose the harvested crop, you should use the following packaging:
- wicker baskets;
- cotton bags;
- wooden boxes;
- nylon stockings or pantyhose;
- nets for storing vegetables.
2-3 times for the entire storage period of the bulb should be sorted out for spoiled copies. If any, they should be discarded immediately. In addition, between the heads it is useful to put the leaves of fern - so you can save them as long as possible.
Onions are not the most unpretentious of the famous vegetable crops. Its cultivation requires a lot of time and effort. However, if you pay proper attention to this vegetable, including during the onion planting on the head in the spring, you do not have to worry about buying it all year round. Finally, self-made heads are more delicate in taste, and your dishes will be much tastier.