According to veterinarians, pyroplasmosis in dogs, whose symptoms appear 2-3 days after infection, is considered to be the most common problem today. The exacerbation of the disease occurs at the beginning of spring and autumn, and the treatment is very problematic. But let's get everything in order.
The main thing - do not miss the symptoms!
The most common disease in dogs today, referred to as piroplasmosis, is tolerated by ticks. However, not every parasite can be contagious. For an animal, encephalitis mites, which carry the intracellular bacteria Babesia canis, are especially dangerous. After a bite, they penetrate into the red blood cells of the animal. After some time, the bacteria successfully multiply, with the result that the erythrocyte bursts, and they successfully move to the next victim cell.
The first clinical signs of piroplasmosis in dogs usually come on 2-7 days after the bite. But the incubation period can be extended to 3 weeks, if such factors occur:
- The age of the dog exceeds 2-3 years. Usually puppies get sick faster and suffer an infection harder than older dogs with well-established immunity.
- The tick was in a single copy, and you found it immediately, so a large number of bacteria did not have time to enter the blood.
- The animal had already suffered from piroplasmosis or a corresponding vaccine was given.
To determine the symptoms of piroplasmosis in an animal, when the bacteria have already begun to multiply, is quite simple. Calm down, watch the dog and honestly answer the following questions:
- Is your pet today unusually passive and refuses to play ball?
- It seems to you that his body temperature is high and his nose is always dry and warm?
- Is your dog breathing impaired? Does she refuse to go for a walk and prefers to sleep at home all the time?
- Does your pupil experience nausea and vomiting?
- And a couple of days ago, were you walking, by chance, in the forest or on a lawn in the grass?
Another very characteristic symptom of piroplasmosis is darkening of the urine. However, this seemingly obvious sign of many owners is beyond the power, especially if the dog is not accustomed to a home toilet.
But at the reception in the veterinary clinic an experienced doctor will be able to distinguish other symptoms, for example:
- pallor of the mucous membrane of the eye;
- yellowness of the skin;
- enlarged liver and spleen;
- uncharacteristic redness on the body with jagged edges.
In any case, if you answered all the questions in the affirmative, then you should not hesitate to visit the vet. Even when, after careful examination of the dog’s body, a tick was not detected and no other signs of infection were observed.
At the reception at the vet
If you find a tick or the above symptoms, it is better not to hesitate and immediately take the dog to the vet. Piroplasmosis is especially dangerous because in the advanced stage the disease is practically incurable and leads to the death of the pet. But with timely diagnosis, only one intramuscular injection with an antiprotozoal can cope with bacteria in the blood.
Basically, the following drugs are used to treat piroplasmosis in dogs:
- "Imidocarb" and analogues.
The principle of action of such suppositories is aimed at the massive death of infected erythrocytes with the formation of a new pure hemoglobin. Subsequently, the dead cells enter the kidneys, from where they are excreted along with the urine of the animal. To speed up this process and alleviate the general condition of the dogs, it is necessary to ensure that the new hemoglobin does not crystallize. For this purpose, a urine alkalization procedure is performed: an intramuscular injection of sodium bicarbonate is made and the dog is allowed to eat a small amount of baking soda.
Then the therapy will be aimed at maintaining the normal functioning of other organs and systems. The veterinarian may prescribe or recommend to the owner to use special vitamin supplements, droppers with glucose and liquid vitamin C, drugs to stimulate the heart.
In modern clinics, animal plasmapheresis is carried out - blood purification through a special filter. The main advantage of this method of treatment is that the liver and kidneys do not take part in cleansing the blood, which means that complications are minimal.
Mandatory preventive measures
Determining the symptoms of piroplasmosis in dogs and timely treatment is, of course, extremely important. But it will be better if you prevent infection in advance. To protect your pet from being bitten by a tick, regularly treat your dog's hair with special drops to be applied on withers. Such procedures are recommended once a month. But everyone's favorite anti-parasitic collars in veterinarians do not cause much confidence.
In addition, it is necessary to conduct a thorough inspection of the dog, especially after a long stay in nature. Pay attention to the favorite habitats of ticks - the neck and ears. Hungry "bloodsuckers" are very small - the size of a pea. But pumped enough, they can reach the size of a whole bean.
Found parasites need to immediately remove. The longer the tick will be on the body of the animal, the higher the probability of infection with piroplasmosis. Using small tweezers with circular or pendulum movements, try to remove the tick from the body of the dog, while it is desirable to get the parasite as a whole.
And if your four-legged friend often brings such a "gift" to the house, instead of tweezers, you can purchase a special device. And of course, take the dog, capturing the tick, to the vet for a checkup.
In conclusion, we recall that a meeting with an encephalitic tick is dangerous not only for the animal, but also for humans. Be careful while walking in the park, in nature and in the forest. After each such promenade, carefully examine yourself and your pupil, and at the first sign of piroplasmosis, immediately contact the hospital.