Some sources say that the nested doll is not a Russian toy, but was originally created in Japan. However, those specimens that were considered "original" and belonged to masters from Asia, more resembled the casts of Russian nesting dolls painted in Sergiev Posad. Distinguished by their lack of varnish on the Japanese versions, as well as altered facial features. How did the traditions change in their design, and how to paint the dolls with your own hands?
Traditions in matryoshka painting: from antiquity to modern times
The most popular version of the painting of the doll today is called "Sergievsky" style, after the city where such figures were made. Characteristic features of the Nesting dolls from Sergiyev Posad are many, since their images have changed over time. So, at the very beginning of the 20th century, the dolls were painted under the ancient Russian knights and boyars, and by the anniversary of the Patriotic War, the dolls were even released, depicting great generals - Kutuzov and Napoleon. Therefore, we cannot say that this doll can have only a female face. Separately, it is worth mentioning the performances of the heroes of Russian fairy tales: the characters in the stories of Pushkin, Gogol and Ershov, the fables of Krylov — all of them were embodied in wooden figures with colorful faces. The same fairy tales were repeated in the "Tver" dolls, but here it is more a tradition than a one-time performance.
Interestingly, while the "Sergiev" nesting dolls could also have additional details of design - from headgear to small objects "in hand". And yet, the most traditional painting of nesting dolls reflected the moments familiar to the Russian person: simple life, festive and everyday images, various layers of society - from Gypsies to Old Believers. It is possible to recognize such a nesting doll on a flowered shawl, if a girl is depicted, as well as an elegant sundress and a blouse with small patterns.
The "Semenovskaya" painting of the matryoshka is characterized not so much by certain details, as by the selection of colors: there are always pure warm colors — yellow, red — and also the addition of green and blue. At the same time, the main details are outlined with a black outline, which gives clarity to all the lines. An outfit for female and male images cannot be festive or belonging to a well-to-do layer - only the villagers in simple sundresses with floral patterns are among the Semenov matryoshka dolls. But the handkerchief, necessarily covering her head, is always painted with peas.
"Vyatka" painting easily differs in a general way: such nested dolls have a restrained, even shy smile, peculiar to a northern girl, blond hair always with red highlights, eyes are traditionally blue. Clothes of pure colors, especially for aprons, in which there are always red details. The initial samples of the sundresses were on thin straps, and in the hands of the dolls they held a bouquet of wildflowers (certainly painted). At the same time, the painting of the "Vyatka" nesting dolls by itself is baptized by experts as flat, because they are very schematic in some way: simple circles, rouge on the cheeks, monochromatic, non-glare hair and clothing. There is no depth, and the main definition that fits the toy is simplicity. In addition, the Vyatka matryoshka is traditionally encrusted with straws.
Nesting dolls "Tverskie" have an interesting highlight in their painting - this is the maximum vitality of individuals. If we compare the technique of drawing the eyes, we can see that the "Tver" toys have real eyes, full-color and detailed, while most other dolls are barely marked with half arcs and framed with eyelashes. Even in the color transitions on the face, the Tver matryoshka wins by the criterion of naturalness, because here the drawing to the photo - so real the faces seem. And not only they: hair, instead of a solid fill, has a division into separate strands and curls, into scarves framing faces on the face.
But the "Krutek" painting can be recognized from afar by the special technique of the 1st brushstroke, which also has the alternative name "Chinese" or "Chinese painting." To perform it on a flat brush, several shades of paint are typed, after which the brush is applied and rotated in a special way: all this allows you to instantly reproduce three-dimensional detail due to color transitions. At the "cool" matryoshka, this technique is used absolutely for each part of the product - both for patterns on clothes, and for hair, and even for a blush on the cheeks.
DIY painting the dolls: basic methods and rules
All existing methods of painting matryoshka are conditionally divided into 2 groups: this is a traditional painting, rooted in the history of the toy, or the author's style, which allows you to get a completely new figure. If the craftswoman does not delve into the life of the past centuries, she is likely to adhere to the basic rules in the painting of the matryoshka dolls, but she will contribute a lot from herself. Whatever method of painting you choose, be sure to follow a few recommendations:
- Matryoshka is an image mostly of a man and in most cases women, even girls, as evidenced by a perky blush, clean face and soft look.
- Red color is present in any mural, even if it is only for a few details, not the main one. This is a traditional color.
- Free space on the surface is always occupied by images of flowers, mainly field ones, since the overwhelming majority of nesting dolls initially depicted peasant girls.
It is also necessary to note the difference in the ways of painting in terms of materials used. Toys made in Polkhovsky Maidan must be primed before covering them with aniline paint, diluted with a weak solution of alcohol. On the contrary, the famous Sergiyev matryoshka dolls are not primed, and also have no substrate at all, but may have a watercolor layer, which is necessarily fixed with varnish. Due to this, color density is achieved, if necessary.
Phased painting matryoshka: master class
Regardless of the style that you stick to when painting the matryoshka, you will need a wooden blank that will be signed, a primer that can be easily made independently from PVA glue, diluted with water, acrylic and / or watercolors, and the latter can be replaced with gouache more malleable and not so quickly grabs, which is convenient for beginners. For marking parts - pencil and eraser. You will also need a set of brushes of various shapes and sizes, they will help you determine the art store. The main thing, do not forget to grab a brush for finishing the product. In addition, the necessary fine toothpicks or needles that will be used to make the smallest details, and the lacquer itself: craftswomen recommend parquet, very dense. Acrylic is not allowed.
- Raw billet is pre-sanded, and then primed: the solution is applied with a thick layer of synthetic wide brush, the product is dried. If you use ready-made acrylic primer, it must be diluted with water. Also, if you need to preserve the natural texture of wood, only the face area of the dolls is treated with a primer - a white circle emerges, the product also dries.
- Then the main parts of the toy begin to be drawn up with colors: start with the large ones - an apron, a scarf. Before drawing them, you can mark the lines with a pencil: this will simplify the process, and under a dense layer of gouache thin basting will not be visible. If necessary, you can even pre-fully draw the desired image on paper, having calculated everything in width and height.
- Now you can go to the decorative elements, also working from large to smaller ones. For this, it is recommended to use not only brushes, but also needles, toothpicks and cotton buds. The latter is good to use, if you combine several shades at once. Paint is distributed on a paper sheet, creating several different islands. In each of them, the edge of a cotton swab is dipped, with which patterns on the surface of the figure begin to form.
- It has already been recommended to carry out thinner parts of the line with a brush with a long pile, also not forgetting to first distribute the paint over the paper, and only then transfer it to the matryoshka doll. This will make the layer dense, but without uneven clots.
- The last stage is drawing the details of the face, and it begins with hair that is not covered with a scarf. A blush on the apples of the cheeks, as well as black eyes, a fold of the upper eyelid, and eyebrows are traced. If necessary, set the direction of the eyelashes. A thinner brush with light paint puts glare in the pupils and on the shawl strings, darker - individual hairs are drawn.
Last added sponges, as well as the smallest details - peas on a scarf, filling the space between flowers, thin tendrils near the leaves, a dark border at the petals, etc. This completes the painting of the matryoshka, and to save the result you just need to use parquet lacquer and Allow the product to dry completely.