A perennial from the Gubokotsvetny family, which came to Europe and Russia from the northern regions of America, is unfairly deprived of attention by gardeners.
Flower of Monard: photos and varieties
High erect stems (up to 0.8 m) with a short fuzz, tetrahedral, crowned with funnel-shaped flowers, connected in sprawling bunches and made in a rich pink gamma - this is what a monard looks like. Often you can find other shades of it - scarlet, purple and even white. The flowering period of this plant opens in July and lasts until the autumn frosts. Most of them are perennial, but annual varieties are present. In total, there are no more than 20 species.
Previously, the monard was called the "Verginsky tiger", after - for a long time it was considered a subspecies of bergamot, as a result of which these ether-oil crops were actively confused. But apart from this, a lot of names were attributed to the monard - lemon mint, lemon balm, American nettle. For anything they took a flower, so similar to these plants. And, of course, mainly because of its flavor.
For aesthetic reasons, flower-bearing plants are rarely used by gardeners: they lack the beauty of lilies or the delights of phlox. However, even in lush bunches that look somewhat casual, you can find your charm. Tall double-hybrid hybrids are most often seen in the gardens of the middle lane, becoming an element of the common forbs on the plot.
In particular, of interest are hybrids derived from the double and fist variant:
- Machogene, CambridgeScarlet, Balance have stunning scarlet petals. The height refers to a high group of flowers, sometimes reaching 1 m. And the “PetiteDelight” with the same characteristics is a dwarf variety - its bushes are not higher than 30 cm.
- "Praerinachl" is loved by gardeners for rich purple petals with a purple tint.
- The color "Fishes", "RouseQuin" is presented in a delicate pink tones with subtle lilac notes, and "Bluestocking" has a deep purple color.
- But the most gentle - representatives of the varieties "SnowMaiden" and "SnowWhite": their petals are white.
- For regions with a cold winter, gardeners recommend paying attention to the "Squaw" variety that is frost resistant and has bright red petals. And the most interesting color of the high bushes "Pawnee": with soft lilac petals, its core is pale green. The height of the stem in this variety sometimes reaches 1.8 m.
What are the medicinal properties of the plant?
If this plant cannot become the main decoration of a garden, it is easy to promote health. It is for this purpose that gardeners often grow monardo: it is good in cooking and as a remedy. This plant has a pleasant aroma, coming from the leaves, and from the flowers, and even from the stems. Because of him, they confuse monard with bergamot, since their main note is common - mint-lemon.
Brewed with any tea without additives, a leaf of Monarda will give the drink a citrus flavor and aroma. In addition, the use of the leaves of the plant occurs in order to establish the functions of the digestive tract.
Monarda is an essential oil culture, therefore the product of its extraction is added to tinctures and decoctions used for rinsing the mouth. It is not only refreshing, but also acts as a natural antiseptic due to the presence of such an element as thymol. Studies have shown that of the more than 20 essential oils, it was the monarda that was able to act as strongly as possible on the pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, it is often used to prevent and combat respiratory diseases, as well as in the excretion of helminths.
But it is worth knowing that the content of essential oil in different varieties of monarda is not the same: monardaceous is the most enriched. A little less fragrant oils - in monardudoic. Moreover, it is not necessary to buy a ready-made product: you can easily get the essential oil from Monarda yourself. To do this, its dry stems and leaves are crushed and mixed with vegetable oil (refined). Their ratio is 1:10. Then, in a water bath, the mixture is heated for 2.5 hours, maintained at a temperature of 60 degrees. Subsequently, it is cooled, passed through a filter (it can be a fine sieve) and poured into a dark glass container. The oil is mainly used externally: it is used to treat wounds, add light to the bowls, or it is buried in the nose.
In addition, medicinal properties have leaves of Monarda, used for disinfection and healing of cuts, abrasions and other damage to the skin. Her scheme of action is the same as that of the plantain: a torn sheet stretches in the fingers to make a juice, and is applied to the wound. You can fix the bandage and walk with a compress for several hours.
In addition, the stems of monarda are added to homemade preparations to prevent food spoilage, rotting, and the appearance of black mold. You can also make tea on the basis of the leaves of the Monarda without adding other herbs: inflorescences and leaves are filled with boiling water and kept warm for 30 minutes. Drink infusion of 50 ml, 3 times a day before meals. At 1 tbsp. Water needs 2 tsp. dry mix.
Landing and care
- Planting Monarda carried out by sowing, carried out in May immediately into open ground. In the southern regions it may be March. Small seeds are buried 1.5–2 cm into the loosened substrate, which is immediately compacted and weakly spilled with warm water. Shoots will not appear soon, they will grow slowly, and this process will not be affected. However, it is important to keep the temperature in this period: it is not allowed to lower the thermometer below 20 degrees. If the spring is late, it is better to plant a monard on seedlings in April. Be sure to pick picking seedlings as soon as they get stronger. The required distance is 20-25 cm.
- A place on the site for the Monarda is selected sunny or with light penumbra. The chemical composition of the soil is not given special attention: the main thing is that there is no high acidity and excess moisture. However, watering the monard is necessary, in the period of lack of rain it is 1 every 3-4 days. It will take root on the limestone, sand and other light substrates. Additionally, it is worth feeding the earth with any organic fertilizer.
- Transplantation and separation of the plant tolerates well, but it makes no sense to deal with them before the bushes reach the age of 3. The time of such procedures is the beginning of spring or autumn. Each part, separated from the parent bush, must have 2-3 strong processes, otherwise there is a high risk that it will not take root. Compost is added to the soil, after which the seedling is dropped. If you divide it in the fall, then next spring it will bloom. And, like any perennial, Monarda blooms only in the 2nd year of life.
Monarda double: culture features
This type of monarda is most often found in the middle lane and, as mentioned, is one of the most valuable plant species due to its high content of essential oil. It is a perennial 0.8 m tall, having a long rhizome, not penetrating into the ground, but parallel to it. Leaves on short petioles in the form of an oval pointed at the top, marked with teeth along the edge. In its pure form, the twinardard is almost not grown, usually hybrids based on it are purchased.
The inflorescence of the plant reaches 6 cm in diameter, on the stem it is in a single copy. The shade of the petals can be any - from red to purple, bracts in the same range as the main flowers. In a flower bed or garden, it will take root in combination with sage, catnip, mint, yarrow. From ornamental plants it looks good with phlox, astilbe, ore beck. Even after the end of the flowering period, when only the fruits remain in the form of medium-sized nuts, the upright stems of the Monarda adorn the autumn garden.
Even if you deliberately careless, cozy rustic style on the plot you do not like, and dried flowers in bouquets are not interesting, it is worth planting dwarf monarda bushes on a small garden bed among lemon balm and bergamot. They will not only bloom a green carpet, but will also go on dry harvesting of useful household herbs in the fall. Moreover, the serious care of the monard is not required.