Pruning grapes is a mandatory process for this crop. It helps to increase the yield and, in addition, affects the taste characteristics of the fruit. In addition, the berries after pruning often become larger, and their maturation is accelerated. There are several ways to do this.
Is it possible to cut grapes in spring?
Beginning gardeners, who believe that most of the procedures with fruit crops are made in the spring, and this rule is being applied to the grapes. Therefore, there are often questions whether spring pruning of a given plant is permissible. But experienced gardeners do not recommend practicing this method, especially if it is necessary to work with a covering variety.
The reason for such a negative attitude to this agrotechnical action in the spring lies in the vulnerability of the grapes. On this plant, any damage is delayed too long, and when the onset of heat starts sap flow. As a result, in the place of the cut appears on the surface of the juice. Besides the fact that such a move will lower the yield of the bush, the risk of its death increases.
Therefore, if possible, it is better to prune the grapes in the fall, before shelter. But in the case when you still need to do this spring, it is worth waiting for a complete retreat of frost. As soon as the air temperature stops dropping below 5 degrees, which often falls in the middle of March, it is allowed to proceed with pruning with extreme caution. It is not allowed with all the bushes, but only with newly planted (in autumn) or not having time to give fruit (not reached 3 years). Such specimens for the winter are hiding without an autumn repetition of the procedure.
How to prune grapes in spring: preparation
Before pruning is important initial inspection of the grapes. After winter, you can track frost-damaged areas affected by rodents or other pests, as well as diseases. Depending on how badly the culture has suffered, the algorithm of further actions is determined.
- The most extensive damage category is when no more than 75% of the bush is affected. This is usually the death of the kidneys - only 1/3 of them die. Then it is cut off after 2 or 3 bitches, which contributes to the strengthening of the fruit links.
- If up to 50% of the buds are lost, no more than 14-15 plots are left on the vine, where, in the future, they will develop again. Also have to remove extra shoots.
- When 75% of the bush has been affected, it is necessary to preserve the remaining maximum. For this, old shoots are removed, any extra branches, and only 15 buds remain on the living vine.
- In the case of the complete death of the kidneys, but the preservation of the life of the shoots, molding is applied. This is especially true when spoiling a young vine. Each shoot is shortened by 2-3 buds, which will enable the bush to develop in the new season.
- If the grapes did not survive the winter, you have to destroy everything above ground. If the root system is damaged, you should refer to the vaccinations, and strengthen the care of the bush. If the spring pruning can be done correctly, even this specimen will yield in 2 years.
How to prune grapes: video and recommendations
Much depends on the instrument chosen for the procedure. Therefore, gardeners for small shoots are advised to take pruners or large scissors, and to get more massive with a hacksaw. Blades before that carefully sharpened, the springs are checked for smoothness. This is important for a flat cut, reduces the degree of damage to the bush.
Another important nuance is the location of the tool. It always comes from the escape that should be kept, heading for the area to be destroyed. At the cut, you should try not to overdo it with the diameter: if you can make the minimum, then it should be left. The location of the wounds should always be on the side of the grape sleeve. Also, it is important to observe their location. Alternation is not recommended: this will obstruct the movement of the juice, and therefore it is desirable to cut along one side of the branch.
Even if the work was carried out with powerful shoots, for which the hacksaw was used, after that they should be trimmed with shears. This will smooth the wound edges, prevent fluid from lingering and serve as a preventive measure for fungal infections. These simple tips will help prevent tissue death and lower yields, as often manifested in spring pruning.
How to figure out which buds are harvested if the grapes survived the winter well? Even on a healthy bush is pruned, but not so large. In conditions of the middle band, only the first 2 buds on the fruit arrow are removed: on them, in any case, there will be no formation of berries. The remaining 13-14 pcs. please with larger flowers in such a scheme, although the first 7 of them may be a little smaller. But on the replacement shoots there are only 4 buds.
How to prune grapes in spring: photos and stages of the no-stem method
In order to prevent the active manifestation of juice on the surface after pruning, it is required to begin it no later than the beginning of April. However, for the cold spring, it may be the middle of the month. Initially, the plant is evaluated according to the above criteria, which will determine the degree of pruning.
But in addition to this, completely sick branches that have lost their strength or have suffered from pests are surely destroyed. When pruning strong shoots deviate to the tool, the blade should be smooth. It is important not to flatten the branch at this moment and not to create lacerated wounds.
In the case when the procedure is performed with two-year-old grapes, the one-year increment is destroyed by 50-60%, and no more than 2 pcs of strong shoots are saved. They must be shortened by 5 eyes, trying not to stretch the diameter of the slice, otherwise tissue death will occur. At the very base of the bush (which is done with a one-year increase), everything is removed to a short hemp 0.5 cm high.
After that, attention is paid to the shape of the grapes, where the main trunk should appear, reaching up to the 1st branch. Only 2 old vines are left, called the sleeves, where young fruiting shoots will begin to appear. At the same time on each of them saved part of the working last year's vine. For the fruit arrow, shortening is carried out on 6 buds. A replacement shoot serves the further development of the plant. As a result, it turns out molding on 2 sides and 4 sleeves.
With a similar scheme of grape pruning, it turns out that the young plant is only the task of growing strong shoots, and three years already become a full-fledged bush. Here will appear the first ovary, leading to fruiting. The trimming algorithm will change a bit. Each sleeve will store only 2-3 full branches, while the rest will shorten to 50 cm. In addition, upon reaching the grapes age of 3 years, you will have to switch to autumn work.
By and large, with a young bush can also be carried out autumn pruning, but, as can be judged by the above scheme, it turns out to be somewhat more difficult. Although the grapes themselves, as a result, will grow wider, and it is quite possible that they will produce better quality crops already at the age of three.
How to cut the grapes in spring with the standard method?
This technique is used less frequently. It is applied to those grape varieties that do not hide in the winter. In the middle lane is not relevant, but applicable to the southern regions. A newly planted plant removes all the shoots, and the bush itself goes down by 2 buds. In the summer shoots appear, at least 2 should be preserved. In the spring of the next year, work is aimed specifically at them.
The first one is shortened only by 3 eyes - it will become a new trunk, and the second one will be cut as short as possible, keeping no more than 2 buds on it. It is needed as a backup process. All other shoots, if any, are destroyed. And the one that is preserved for the purpose of forming a string is fixed to the support.
The spring of the 3rd year demands to lower the trunk that has arbitrarily begun to grow stronger, new shoots are eliminated on it. You can not touch only 2 intended for the sleeves. Usually, the uppermost processes are preserved for this purpose. They are also tied to the trellis, previously shortened by 2 peepholes. The reserve escaped from the previous spring does not destroy only 2: the same replacement, reduced by 2 buds, and others - 6 buds high.
Further pruning is performed under the conditions specified in the characteristics of the grape variety. Often it is much easier than the one that is required in the first 3 years.
Most often, pruned grapes are produced in the fall, but sometimes it has to be done in the spring. At this time of year, the procedure can be carried out only with young bushes that have not yet yielded a harvest. It is required to strictly follow certain rules in order to maintain a healthy vine. In the case of high-quality pruning significantly increases the yield and improves the taste of berries.