Agrotechnical science is not an easy thing. Even such a seemingly mundane question, like the creation of zones for planting fruit crops, is capable of pretty tiring beginners. Information is the sea, understanding is not enough. Therefore, we propose to understand in detail how to make the beds in the country correctly, and what is the difference between the popular methods.
How to make the right beds?
Usually the type of beds is selected taking into account the crops that are planned to plant on it. In addition, the soil and its composition should sometimes be considered. For example, warm beds are an ideal choice for almost any plant. One of their undeniable advantages is safety for the plant in the period of excess moisture in the soil. This option is especially good for trees and shrubs, as well as some fruit crops like tomatoes, squash, and ityq. It is worth thinking about a warm bed and for cucumbers, peppers and strawberries. But taking into account the physical costs of them, it is necessary to set priorities. Big Garden does not fill them.
American beds are good for vegetable crops. Their Russian modifications, like the "pyramid", made up of several tiers, are ideal for working with strawberries, which need to be protected from moisture. In addition, it is much easier to harvest from them.
For herbs suitable for food, attention should be paid to beds in a wheel that is buried and filled with soil, and which is divided by several thin partitions. Besides the fact that it will protect from leaching, this design allows not impoverish other cultures. It will not take a large area, and under it any weeds will die.
The way to increase the yield according to Mitlayder
The method of one of the American scientists, which made it possible to increase the yield on the site, is being actively discussed today. Someone insists that there is nothing revolutionary in it, and in general it is not worth attention. Someone, on the contrary, admires the idea and results. One thing can be said with certainty: everything can be solved only by self-testing.
The bottom line is that around each row of 0.45 m wide, of which 0.1 m will be divided in half into sides, inter-row spacings are created. They would fit another 2 such beds. Their width is 0.9-1 m. Another distinctive feature of the Metlider method is a length of up to 9 m. Nevertheless, versions of either 3 or 4.5 m are allowed.
Around the beds are created bumpers, protecting it around the perimeter. The width of each is about 5 cm. They should rise 10 cm above the surface. At the bed itself enclosed in them, the width will be 0.3 m. It is not necessary to wake up or spread anything between the rows, therefore everything is very simple here. The "highlight" of the method will be in fertilizers.
Mitlider suggested starting organic with minerals and mineral preparations. One of them is based on calcium with the addition of boron, and the second is in equal proportions on nitrogen, molybdenum, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. He goes on top dressing every 7 days, while the first is used only before planting seedlings. The calculation for the first mixture is about 100 grams. on 1 m. linear in light soils and 200 gr. - in heavy. The second is 2 times less.
Straw beds: benefits
Straw-based beds are not as popular, but they have their advantages. In particular, they are easier to develop the root system. The number of pests here is significantly reduced. In the minuses, an increased frequency of watering is noted, but in the case of rainy summer in some regions, this is not a problem.
In order to create such a bed a trench is being dug. It deepens by only 0.2 m. Its width will be equal to 0.8 m. The length is arbitrary, it does not matter. The bottom is lined with any hard material, such as mesh. Tied with a cloth tape bundles of straw are laid out on top. Their volume is such that the final height of the beds above the ground should be 0.4 m. It is necessary to shed it with infusion of mullein and tighten the film.
Landing on such a bed is made not earlier than in a week. Top saplings should be sprinkled with peat. It is most suitable for cucumbers - here you can immediately appreciate their rich harvest.
Learning to make a high bed
High beds - the prerogative of gardeners living in America. The features of the soil require increasing its fertility, which is also characteristic of areas in the middle zone. Therefore, this version has taken root in Russia.
- The first stage is the search for a place filled with the sun. A section of 1–1.2 m wide will be required, and its length is determined on the basis of requests. To begin with, bumpers are harvested. The height should be 0.8-0.9 m, and the thickness is about 4-5 cm. Usually simple wooden boards become the material.
- The frame should not only be diligently treated with an antiseptic, but also protected with black film. This will ensure the preservation of moisture inside it and, as a result, will not allow the soil to leach out.
- Another measure taken here, but already against rodents - the imposition on the ground inside the metal fine mesh. But before this, the bed is deepened another 0.4 m. As a result, its total height will be already 1.2-1.3 m.
- A brushwood, chips and tree bark are distributed over the net. Next comes a layer of cellulose waste. Compost crumbles onto them, to which food residues can be attached. Then comes peat, necessary for the production of enzymes, poured with water. And already on it laid fertile land. In terms of their content, American beds are very similar to classic warm ones.
- For the next 5 years, you can forget about the bed, using the resources of the created substrate. Here any vegetables will grow well.
What is a warm bed?
For novice gardeners, the phrase "warm bed" may seem strange, but it reflects its essence very well. The temperature of the substrate in it is indeed a few degrees higher than in other areas of the site. And all this is achieved by the special composition of the soil. When decomposed, it begins to release heat. As a result, such a land is more favorable to early plantings in the open ground. Such a scheme will allow us to shift the time of displacement of seedlings, and the process of fruit ripening will be accelerated.
A bed is laid at the very beginning of autumn. For this purpose, a recess of any length is pre-excavated, but necessarily 40 cm wide and deep. It is best if the place for it is chosen with good lighting. This will give the opportunity to get the maximum effect from the warm beds.
Filling it will look like this: branches cut from bushes fall to the very bottom, and the tree bark that has begun to rot is distributed to them. This is the basis. Nitrogen and carbonaceous organic layers will be laid on it. The most important thing is to alternate them. Nitrous - is any food waste, grass and manure. In carbon includes sawdust, paper, sunflower stalks, which are pre-kneaded, dry leaf. Between the layers is to wake up a little ash. It is impossible to use the tops of potatoes and tomatoes with cucumbers, and also paper with inks (from printed publications) is not allowed. Their composition detrimental effect on the substrate and plants.
As soon as the layers are ready to level with the upper edge of the earth, they diligently irrigate with fertilizer. After that, it is worth trampling down the soil slightly, cover it with roofing felt and leave the garden bed for a period of 7-10 days. After this period, the black film is removed, the bed is filled with soil from the ground with compost, the layer of which is about 30 cm. Additionally, it is necessary to have a high curb around it.
Often the type of beds is chosen that is suitable for growing a particular crop. For zucchini, cucumbers, tomatoes fit warm beds. They need to prepare in the fall. There are other techniques. Many gardeners prefer to make American beds and use straw.