Many garden crops are not so simple in cultivation and they cause a lot of questions to novice gardeners. It is not enough just to buy a bag of seeds, pour them into the substrate, water and wait for the harvest. Under the conditions of the middle band, almost all plants pass through the period of seedlings, and some need also preliminary actions, for example, germination.
Why and how to germinate seeds?
From the starting stage, at which the seedlings spit, it depends on how fruitful the year will be. And because every gardener is looking for ways that can help with this. The germination of seeds is one of these tactics, increasing the chances of maximum survival and fruiting of the desired crops. Basically it is used specifically for vegetables, a little less engaged in the germination of flower seeds and shrubs.
What needs to be understood here is the importance of preprocessing. In order not to waste energy, seeds are selected by any of the known methods. The primary check is a visual one, where all swept away material that has damage to the shell is swept away. Then begins checking a variety of solutions. The most famous salt. But it is worth knowing that after this the seeds are necessarily washed several times in clean water. If you leave a salty liquid on them, it will slow down the germination process.
The terms are designated for each crop separately, but the general requirement is to plant immediately as soon as the first sprouts appear. In this case, the seeds will have to be carefully separated using sharp tweezers. After all, they are mostly intertwined during germination, and the seedlings are very fragile.
Temperature and humidity are key factors requiring compliance. The latter should be consistently high, which is achieved by simple spraying. And the temperature is set individually. In particular, greenery is enough 4 degrees above zero, the beets already need 5 degrees, and the beans are all 15. At the same time, these figures are the bottom bar, which is unacceptable to cross. The total temperature requirement is 23-28 degrees for all cultures.
Peculiarities of pepper seeds growing:
- Bulgarian pepper belongs to those crops that are indispensable without prior stimulation before planting. This plant does not always take root in the ground, even after passing the seedling stage, and therefore requires particularly careful preparation. Here the whole process, in fact, has 4 options for development, which sometimes even combine.
- In addition to the most preferred germination practicing etching, working with chemical growth stimulants, as well as hardening at low temperatures. Often made soaking the seeds in 1% potassium permanganate diluted with water to a faint tint. But often it is not enough of one, so all other methods are used.
- Initially, of course, it is necessary to determine the time of landing in the ground, and then find out the moment when you can start preparing the seeds. For early varieties, this is a period of 45 days, for middle-ripening - 60-65. If all the conditions of germination are carried out correctly, problems with seedlings will not arise, and seedlings will appear quickly enough.
- The first step is the selection of seeds according to their size and condition: only large, undamaged elements that have not been dried are suitable for sowing. They undergo a disinfection procedure, in potassium permanganate 1% (1 g of powder per 100 ml of water), and then washed with clean running water.
- The most elementary thing that can be taken to stimulate the swelling of seeds is their lowering into water heated to 53 degrees. The temperature should be kept for 20 minutes, so it is advisable to use a thermos or other container capable of maintaining the specified value.
- After that, a piece of cloth (flannel is desirable) is wetted in the same water, seeds are carefully placed on it, and the cloth is wrapped. Placing it in any shallow container (for example, on a saucer), you must place it under the refrigerator. There the seeds will lie for 5-7 hours, and then they are advised to be treated with "Novosil" for 20 minutes. After such actions, the pepper seeds are ready for planting.
- There is a different algorithm of actions: small cups are filled with earth, after which the substrate is moistened. Seeds are distributed one by one over the soil, and then spilled with a solution of the drug "Zircon". Dosage - per 100 ml of water not more than 4 drops of the product. In each cup is added another layer of earth 4 cm thick, which is carefully compacted. The containers in a vertical position are stored in any box or box, which can be put on a plastic bag. It is worth a little breathing into it, increasing the proportion of carbon dioxide. Then the ends of the package are tied, keeping the air inside, and it is placed in any warm place. You can not untie until the very first shoots. The temperature during the whole term of germination is held above the mark of 13 degrees.
What to do with cucumber seeds?
Cucumber seeds germinate literally in 3-4 days, so such actions are taken with them almost immediately before planting in cups. The main action is soaking, which can be done in 3 ways. But whatever preference is given, it is important to remember that the water collected from the tap should not be used. The ideal option is either water thawed or rain. At the same time it should warm up in room conditions up to 28 degrees.
The simplest option is similar to the action with peppers: in a rag, this time - a canvas, pre-soaked, pre-selected and washed seeds are poured. It should be rolled up and placed in a bag, which is immediately twisted or tied. Clean the seeds in the warmer place as possible. When germinating cucumbers, the temperature should not fall below 15 degrees.
The next version is that the same rag does not retract into the bag, but moves a glass jar of a small displacement. There you can add a little carbon dioxide, breathing into it, at the same time slightly raising the inside temperature. The jar is tightly closed with a lid (preferably plastic) and placed in a warm place for 2-3 days.
You can resort to a more complex scheme: linen cloth is treated with mineral fertilizer. Pre-selected cucumber seeds are placed into it, and then put in the fridge on the lower shelf. They need to lie down for no more than 12 hours. During this period, peat pots or tablets are prepared. In each make no more than 2-3 seeds, which are selected with the emergence of seedlings.
Grow tomatoes correctly
Work with seeds tomato has not so many differences from the algorithm of actions with cucumber seeds. The key stage is selection. It depends on him, whether shoots will appear, and how many will be. It is desirable to leave only large elements with a solid shell. After that, the seeds are poured into a cloth bag and dipped into the solution of potassium permanganate, the concentration of which is the same - 1%. Exposure time - 15 min. Then the seeds are washed and sorted by size: large planted separately from small.
Selection can be facilitated by using saline. Then in 200 ml of water 2 tsp is poured. salt, put seeds into it. All that will be on the surface in 2-3 minutes. - not suitable for use. And viable seeds will settle down. Now for them comes the turn of the next treatment, where mineral fertilizers are used.
For this connects 1 tbsp. ash from 1 tsp nitroammofoski. This mixture is poured into 1 liter. pure water, where the seeds of tomatoes are kept for 12 hours
The last step of sprouting tomato seeds will require a saucer, a pair of thin cotton napkins and water. A napkin pre-moistened in warm water is placed in a container on the bottom. On it carefully and evenly scatter the seeds. From above, they are covered with the remaining napkin, also treated with water.
A lid or glass is put on the saucer. And during the entire period preceding the emergence of sprouts, it is necessary to maintain the humidity of the napkins. In addition, it is important to remember that tomato seeds are germinated at temperatures above 11 degrees. And the most preferable values fluctuate in the corridor from 23 to 27 degrees.
The main algorithm of germination of seeds, as a result, consists in their selection, disinfection and placing in a humid and warm microclimate. Depending on the particular culture, certain conditions are selected. Having mastered this technique, you can be sure of the high productivity of your site.