Corn is a product that can be grown even in the coldest regions, and therefore it has high availability. Many childhood memories are associated with this particular culture, which is one of the traditional delicacies. Those who want to get a fresh product instead of canned store, should learn about the features of growing corn on the site.
Corn sugar: cultural characteristics
Sweetcorn is an annual crop belonging to the category of cereals. In height, its stems are capable of reaching 3-5 m, cobs are formed on female inflorescences located along the stem. Men's form empty "panicles". The root system of the plant is strong, often there are also so-called aerial roots at the level of the lower nodes.
The leaves are large, lanceolate, sometimes in length reach 1 m. They grow sweet corn in areas for the sake of cobs, presented in the form of a cone tightly studded with grains of rich yellow color. Rare varieties may even have purple or black shades, but in the middle lane such corn is not common.
Grains are served to the table as soon as they reach the milky or milky-wax ripeness. Those. in the initial phase of its maturation, when the elements of the cob are still easy to choke with your fingers, releasing the juice. Of all the cereals, only corn is harvested at this moment: oats, wheat, and similar crops require entry into a more mature stage. A product in any of these phases can be consumed both raw and thermally treated.
- What is sure to know, having attended to the issue of growing corn? First, it does not tolerate drought. If, over a long period, the air temperature is above 35 degrees and there is no rain, the cobs begin to dry out. In the case when the heat overtakes the culture at a young age, we can expect an almost empty cob. Therefore, the best temperature for sweet corn is 25-30 degrees, and the air humidity should range from 30%.
- The place where the culture will grow, is selected sunny and windless. It is best to plant it on those areas where previously grew potatoes or zucchini, as well as cucumbers, squash and cabbage.
- It is desirable to prepare the soil in autumn, digging it to a depth of 30 cm, and also removing the roots of weeds from the substrate. Looseness of the earth will contribute to the strength of the root system of the plant. If the soil differs in pH in the direction of the acidic environment, it needs to be limestone. For this purpose, for each sq.m. 250-300 g of lime are added.
- But the more important point of the autumn stage is fertilizer. Soil fertility is almost a fundamental factor, which will determine the yield of maize. Therefore, after digging up the earth, it is required to enrich with nutrients. On sq.m. 4-5 kg of any organic fertilizer, 2-2.5 kg of potash salt and 35-40 g of superphosphate are needed. Seasoned gardeners for the same needs use compost, insisted for 2 years. On sq.m. accounted for 5 liters. It is also advised to make 1 l. ash and polvedra river sand.
- If in the fall there was no opportunity to prepare the soil, it would be necessary to take measures in the spring. During digging, a different mixture is introduced there: this is a combination of ammonium nitrate (20 g), potassium salt (15-20 g) and superphosphate (35-40 g). Volumes are per sq.m.
Growing corn seedlings: features of the process
- For the middle band, a seedling method of growing corn is most relevant. For this purpose, paper cups are purchased, in which the primer is laid. It consists of several components: sand, compost and peat. They are typed in a ratio of 1: 2: 1. At 2.5 liters of this mixture, you must also pour 100 g of ash, which will prevent possible acidification of the substrate. Corn will not tolerate it at this age.
- Only 1 grain is laid in each of the cups, with a depth of 3-4 cm. 2 cm of them are filled with sand from above, and gardeners are not advised to block the remaining “hole”. Water will be poured into it. With irrigation, however, it is not recommended to abuse. Daily, as much water is added as needed to maintain the overall soil moisture. At the same time it is important to follow the temperature: its bar is 19 degrees. Oscillations in either side are permissible only for 1 degree.
- The first dressing is carried out a week before transferring seedlings to open ground. It must be present in a large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus, responsible for the growth and development of the root system. Subsequently, it will affect the loading of grain. Transplantation is done with care and preservation of the earth around the roots.
How to grow kulturuna cottage in the open field?
The climate of the southern regions provides an opportunity for gardeners to bypass the seedling stage, as a result of which they grow corn with its sowing in open ground. This is done closer to the end of April, at the moment when the soil in the upper layer warms up to 10 degrees. In the earlier landing there is no point: in the cold earth the seeds rot.
The orientation goes to the depth of embedding, which is 5-6 cm. When sowing, the scheme should be kept at 60 * 30 cm or 70 * 70 cm. The acidic substrate before this is again filled with lime using the same algorithm as in the fall. And before planting or sowing corn, the soil is loosened by 5-6 cm.
There are no more than 4 grains per 1 well, of which absolutely everything is not always pecked. However, after the emergence of seedlings, it is often necessary to engage in their thinning. Only 2 plants are left in each well.
If it is necessary to plant seedlings, they are located on the site in the same pattern and with the same frequency per well. After that comes the stage of hilling. To this end, the aisles are loosened, the groundwork occurs by 8 cm. The main purpose of this action is to provoke the emergence of aerial roots in the culture, which is possible only when the necessary areas are close to the ground.
The most important actions in the cultivation of sweet corn are loosening, feeding, thinning. The latter refers not only to the initial stage, when there are too many shoots in the hole, but also to the stage of growing culture.
As it grows on the stem, in the leaf axils, when a 7-8 leaf appears, the stepchildren begin to appear. There is no use for them, but they inflict considerable damage on the future harvest. All nutrients go to them, and also, growing, they shade the leaves. Therefore, as soon as the stepsons reach 25 cm in length, they must be broken off.
The next important detail is artificial extra pollination. Among all cultures, it is practiced like only with corn. Male flowers, which later become empty panicles, break off and shake above the female ears that have already begun to bloom.
Do not miss the susceptibility of maize to pest attacks and various diseases. For decades, it was only possible to increase the frost resistance of the crop, but not to make it completely protected. By the way, as for the cold, the spring frosts cause her less damage than the fall. Already the temperature of 3 degrees above zero leads to the destruction of the grains. Therefore, cleaning should be done in a timely manner.
When to harvest?
It is impossible to say for sure exactly when to start collecting cobs. As mentioned, they become suitable for food already at the stage of milky ripeness, but no worse than grains will be in a milky-wax state. The main external feature here is the shrinkage of the edge on the shell of the cob. Once this zone reaches 1-1.5 cm, you can begin harvesting. An additional signal is a change in the shade of threads on female colors: it becomes brown, but they still retain their softness.
No more than 14 days are allotted for harvesting corn since the appearance of the first technically ripe cobs. This period, in most cases, is sufficient for the others to reach. If you miss even the stage of milky-wax ripeness, you will get a product that is badly cooked. The only thing they will be suitable for - is drying and grinding into flour.
Experienced gardeners recommend purchasing hybrid varieties of sweet corn for growing. They must be sorted and processed with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate. The further process of growing corn is quite simple. It is important to prepare the soil, fertilize in time, and also to harvest in time.