There are no such plants and trees that would never hurt. Apple tree is no exception. For this fruit tree need care. It consists in grafting, pruning damaged branches and, of course, preventing many diseases and pest invasions. In order for your apple orchard to be healthy, you need to know about plant ailments and how to treat them.
Apple Diseases: Black Cancer
Cancer of the apple is manifested visually. The reason for its occurrence can be a climatic factor, as well as improper and inadequate care of the tree. There are several forms of the disease.
So ordinary cancer occurs in apples and other fruit trees in the same way. On the trunks and crown appear thickening. Possible damage to the bark and decay. In apple trees, the form of this cancer usually manifests itself in the form of open or closed lesions. In the 1st case, recesses are formed on the trunk, in the 2nd case - growths. All these wounds do not grow and do not disappear. A reddish hem and additional growths are formed around them.
The cause of the disease is low temperatures. They contribute to easier penetration of fungal spores into the crowns, because cracks are formed on the trunks due to frost. When the first symptoms of damage, lubricate the garden pitch or Bordeaux liquid. Next, cut off all damaged branches and burn them away from garden trees. Do not confuse this disease with the effect of sunburn.
Black cancer proceeds in the same way. Its pathogen is a wound parasite. It penetrates into the bark during pruning or damage caused by low temperature. Under the influence of the parasite on the trunk of an apple purple dark spots appear. Black cancer is fairly easy to distinguish from other problems. The bark on the tree begins to flake off, cracks form on it.
Visually, this disease resembles the effects of a fire. The trunk looks charred. The black bark of an apple tree is overgrown with growths, in which spores of the fungus are located. Cancer affects not only the bark, but also the leaves with fruits. The fact is that it usually develops during the harvest period or after it, when apples are stored in basements.
On the leaves, black apple cancer appears as follows: light spots are formed. Then dark points appear in their center. Leaves dry out and fall off. Fruits can also shrink and fall off. To prevent disease, wounds should be disinfected in a timely manner. It is also believed that vigorous and frost-resistant apple trees are more resistant to the disease.
Diseases of the apple tree: photo
The most common diseases of apple trees include powdery mildew, scab, fruit rot, table rot. Each of them has its own specific symptoms and course.
Cytosporosis affects trees of different ages. At the same time, the sick and weakened apple trees are most susceptible to this disease. First of all, you should pay attention to the bark. Visible spots appear on it, but they do not darken, but remain brownish in color. If you try to remove such a portion of the bark, it will lag behind the trunk in pieces, as if peeling off.
The bark gradually dries out, the entire tree can dry out completely. This is due to the fact that the disease penetrates into the tree. You can fight the disease in several ways. Among them - the use of fungicides. Sick branches must be cut and destroyed. Prevention of cytosporosis is also necessary. To do this, improve the immunity of apple trees.
Due to the powdery mildew, white or gray scurf appears on the leaves and ovaries. Gradually, it changes color to brownish. The tree at this time begins to literally run down. This is manifested in the shrinking and dropping of leaves and shoots. Also, the apple tree ceases to bear fruit. With these symptoms, you need to find the right treatment.
To do this, use a variety of drugs. In 1 bucket of water dissolve 2 ml. "Topaz" or "Scor". Then the resulting liquid is sprayed with a sick apple tree. After harvesting trees can be treated Bordeaux liquid.
Fruit rot is not a disease, but rather a consequence of the disease. Proceeds as follows: the fruits begin to rot. In this case, the crown, leaves, branches seem to be absolutely normal. It is necessary to remove all the fruits and destroy them far from the trees. Apples can be burned.
Fight against apple diseases is the timely care and treatment. In early spring, all diseased branches should be trimmed with a solution of copper sulphate and cover sections with garden pitch. The whole tree is sprayed with Bordeaux mixture. After flowering, apple trees are treated with stimulating solutions that affect the formation of fruits. Then sprayed with drugs against pests.
Diseases and pests of apple: how to treat?
Another apple disease is scab. Its spread is due to disputes. In the fall, the infected leaves fall off, and in the spring they can be seen on them with dark spores with spores. Next comes the infection of young leaves. The situation is worsening with high humidity and heat. Spores in the leaves due to these factors germinate and form a mycelium.
As follows from the description of the disease, the symptoms appear first on the leaves. Light yellowish specks appear on them. Sometimes they have an oily sheen. Ends with the fact that the leaves dry out. The disease goes to the buds, ovaries and formed fruits.
You can fight scab in different ways. One of the ways - autumn spraying urea. While buds are blooming, apples can be treated with Bordeaux liquids. As a preventive measure, all fallen leaves must be burned in the fall.
Mealy dew is a fungal disease. A velvety whitish coating appears on the leaves and ovaries. Next begins the deformation of the leaves. They are twisted into a tube, bending the edges up so that you can see the underside of the sheet. White plaque also goes to the ovary. Wet warm weather contributes to the development of the disease. The result of the disease is a decrease in the winter hardiness of apple trees and a huge decrease in yield.
Prevention is the destruction of diseased areas, timely watering, and avoiding overdrying of the soil. By the way, a number of drugs can be used with the whole complex of diseases. Vectra, Skor, Bordeaux liquid, Kuproksat, Cumulus are used against scab. Copper sulfate is used in combination of various diseases and for disinfecting wounds. Against the munine dew, Stora, Tioquit and colloidal sulfur are used.
If you experience the first symptoms of the disease in apples, you need to understand what was the causative agent. In accordance with the symptoms, the drugs and method of treatment are selected. In order for the apple tree to be healthy, you must comply with a number of preventive measures. It is necessary to destroy diseased branches and leaves after harvest, to disinfect wounds. Also, knowledge of the symptoms of certain diseases will help in a timely manner to understand why the leaves turn yellow in an apple tree, why spots appear on the bark and fruits.