Broccoli cabbage on the frequency of its use deservedly shares 2nd place with cauliflower, taking advantage of particular popularity among supporters of healthy eating. On garden plots, this vegetable is grown quite often. It is very unpretentious and even after freezing does not lose nutritional properties.
What are the benefits of broccoli?
In appearance, broccoli is almost identical to cauliflower. This should not be surprising: they belong to the 1st subspecies, differ only in shade and taste properties. Even the features of planting and caring for the culture are identical.
Broccoli annual, yields already in the first year, and it is much higher than in other species. Vegetation also takes less time from her. For early varieties it is 2 months, for the latest ones - 3.
This culture is not afraid of frosts, and not only autumn. Saplings with ease will survive even a sudden spring cooling, being in open ground. Due to this, there are 2 - seedling and seedless growing methods for growing broccoli cabbage. Pests attack it rarely, although preventive measures are still required. As well as to prevent disease through proper planting technology.
A particularly important factor is productivity. Broccoli is included in the group of remontant plants: after the inflorescences of the main head are removed, do not rush to forget about a particular instance. A week later, you can already see several new inflorescences. Let not the same size, but smaller ones. For this, small lateral branches are not cut off.
This process will last until serious autumn frosts. In addition, not only inflorescences can be submitted to the table, but also shoots. They are less common in recipes, but no less interesting as a side dish. It is for this property that broccoli is often called asparagus cabbage.
Broccoli seedlings: growing features
- Seedling method is ideal for areas with cold spring and late summer. This allows you to protect the weakest seedlings from sudden frosts, and therefore gives a guarantee in obtaining a quick harvest.
- The classic time to plant broccoli seedlings is the 2nd decade of April. In earlier procedures, there is no point, unless the variety is of a species that gives a late harvest. Then, seed manipulations in the initial days of March are quite permissible. If the work is done by a seedless method, it will have to be postponed until early May.
- Seeds before planting are carefully selected, which is easiest to do if you pass them through a sieve. The smallest will not germinate, so it is best to remove them immediately. Large macerate 3-4 h in a weak solution of potassium permanganate and only then laid in the ground.
- Gardeners are not advised to send them in a common box: it is better to immediately begin to distribute into small cups. 2-3 seeds in 1 tbsp. Keep containers better in the shade, but with sufficient air temperature. It should be within 18-20 degrees. At the same time, it is necessary to monitor the moisture content of the substrate, not allowing it to dry out. At the beginning of week 3, a pick will be performed.
- During the period of growing broccoli seedlings, much attention is paid to fertilizing. 2 weeks after sowing, a mullein solution is introduced into the soil. Typically, the concentration is 100 ml of fertilizer per 1 liter of pure water. It is possible to replace the mullein with urea, but it is required for the same 1 l of water just 0.5 tsp. In this case, 1 sapling leaves 0.5 liters of solution. After another 2 weeks, nitroammophoska is used. Its proportion is the same as that of urea. But it is required on a sapling already 1 l.
Kakuhozhivat for broccoli?
Before planting seeds or seedlings, it is necessary to prepare the soil. The bed for broccoli is chosen so that in the previous 4 years it did not grow any cruciferous. Ideal conditions - soil after potatoes, onions or legumes. In addition, it should not be increased acidity: it is better to withstand neutral pH. And if such a zone is not found in the garden, it will be necessary to treat the substrate with lime. Depending on the degree of acidity, from 200 to 400 g per 1 sq.m.
Such processing is done in the fall, and then the entry of humus is delayed in the spring. If chalking is not required, the bed is fertilized in the fall. Top dressing of the soil is usually made by compost, which is 1 sq. M. no more than 5 kg is taken. It also requires superphosphate in combination with potassium salt (50 g). All this is entered simultaneously with a deep digging. And in the spring the substrate is treated with ammonium nitrate.
If a seedless method of growing broccoli cabbage was chosen, the prepared seeds are sown in holes of 2 pcs., And they must be kept in the greenhouse until the first seedlings. After this, weak seedlings are removed, and the shelter is removed. Further technology is the same for both methods. In this case, the wells are created according to the scheme of 0.7 by 0.5 m.
If the well is being prepared for already grown seedlings, the scheme is modified to 0.6 by 0.4 m or to 0.7 by 0.3 m. Some ash (100 g) and mineral fertilizer (10 g) is poured into it, after which the earth is carefully spilled with warm water. The soil near the seedling after planting carefully compacted. New watering is required.
However, broccoli loves water. Ensure that the substrate does not dry out, have carefully. This is perhaps one of the main conditions for the care of culture. In addition to the fact that when the ground moisture level falls below 75%, the yield drops, the taste qualities of the product will also begin to deteriorate. In addition, the fragility of cabbage stalks will increase. But just watering is not enough: after that, the top 7 cm of soil should be loosened.
Broccoli differs from cauliflower not only in its yield. This culture does not require it to create a shadow at the moment the inflorescences appear. Broccoli has nothing against the bright sun. But it needs constant hilling and loosening of the substrate, which makes it possible for appendages to appear in the root system. The period of feeding is only at the time of growing seedlings, so an adult plant can be considered unpretentious.
Varieties for the middle band
This vegetable there are many varieties capable of producing the maximum yield in the middle lane. The ideal can only be found in an experimental way, so it is quite possible that this will take 2-3 years.
- Early maturing "Vyarus", which actively creates secondary heads on shoots, is especially appreciated. This is a great choice for a long harvest. The mass of the main inflorescence is more than 1 kg.
- "Green Favorite" is included in the group of hybrids, and, despite the fact that its growing season is medium, it is valued for its high yield. The mass of the head usually does not exceed 0.4 kg.
- Not the last place among the varieties "Emperor", "Comanche" and "Corvette". All of them are early maturing, 2 of them are hybrids. It is easy to survive even thickening, differ in the power of the leaves and the strength of the head. Lateral inflorescences are suitable for freezing for the winter.
- The late varied successful varieties include "Lucky" and "Marathon", especially cold-resistant, with large heads weighing 0.7 kg. Despite the density of the inflorescences, they taste soft. Harvest from these varieties is going long.
Experienced Gardeners Tips
Regardless of the type of broccoli chosen, it is important to monitor the temperature. In the open ground to regulate it, of course, impossible. Therefore, if at the time of emergence and formation of inflorescences the thermometer reaches 18 degrees, it is necessary to increase the humidity. To do this, the plant is often watered in the holes and between the rows.
In order to continuously obtain the harvest, called the conveyor belt, it is recommended to practice a certain algorithm for planting broccoli. In the open ground every 3 weeks a new batch is planted. This is done 2-3 times, the last of which, even in the middle lane, is easy to implement by a seedless method. This scheme will allow throughout the summer and part of the autumn to collect inflorescences in large quantities.
Harvest is required at a time when the inflorescences are still closed. If tightened, they will begin to grow and bloom, and, of course, cabbage will no longer be used as food.
The only significant disadvantage of broccoli is the need to annually plant it again, and, moreover, on the other garden bed. But given the lack of difficulties in the agrotechnology of its cultivation, this minus is easily covered by the positive sides.
Broccoli cabbage is valued by gardeners for easy maintenance and ease of cultivation. Supporters of a healthy lifestyle note the high nutritional value and benefit of the product. This vegetable has a lot of positive qualities in all aspects. In addition, broccoli inflorescences give a long crop and are suitable for freezing for storage in the winter.