What could be more beautiful when a young mother holds her baby in her arms? He is so tiny and completely defenseless, and we fully bestow him with love and care. While still in the maternity ward, most new mothers notice that their baby’s skin has a yellowish tint that resembles a tan.
Doctors and medical staff are not worried about this, because they know that many babies may have a yellow one after birth. But mummies are interested in a number of questions: is the jaundice of the newborn dangerous, what are the causes and consequences of its appearance, as well as methods of treatment?
This is what will be discussed in our article.
Zheltushka in newborns: causes and effects, bilirubin rate
When a child is in the womb, the environment of his stay is considered sterile. The blood that flows through the vessels of the fetus is enriched with a special type of hemoglobin, the so-called fetal substance. With the help of this substance the blood is saturated with oxygen.
After the birth of a little man is under stress. Scarce actively begins to breathe with the lungs, and the cells of hemoglobin and red blood cells, which were produced in the womb, begin to disintegrate. During this period, the production of bilirubin. This substance is a bile pigment that occurs as a result of the breakdown of proteins and is necessary for the normal functioning of all organs, in particular the liver.
In an adult, developed bilirubin is excreted naturally. Of course, the small organism is not able to cope with the large amount of bilirubin that has appeared, as a result of which its concentration in the blood rises, and the skin of the infant acquires an uncharacteristic yellowish tint.
The causes of the appearance of different types of jaundice in infants
Specialists subdivide the jaundice of newborns into two large groups:
As practice shows, the physiological type of jaundice appears in most newborns. The number of children born with such a jaundice is 70%. As a rule, with this form of jaundice, the skin of a child has a light yellowish or orange hue, similar to tan. Many mothers are concerned about this state of their baby and often ask themselves: when should the jaundice pass in newborns?
The physiological type of zheltushka disappears without a trace in 3-4 days. Its presence indicates the active production of bilirubin. In some cases, the appearance of a physiological type of yellow jelly may be due to the following reasons:
- fetal hypoxia;
- the presence of the mother of diabetes;
- premature delivery;
- the presence of infectious and bacteriological microorganisms.
In this case, the jaundice may disappear only after a few weeks.
If the child's skin remains yellowish, and even the eyeballs have acquired a non-characteristic color, doctors have a concern about the development of pathogenic zheltushka. In what cases can there be pathological yellowness of the skin and eyeballs? Treatment specialists identify the following reasons:
- the incompatibility of the blood group of the mother and the newborn;
- liver damage by viral infection or bacteria;
- conflict rhesus factors;
- hormonal disorders;
- violation of metabolic processes in the body of the genetic type;
- the presence of congenital diseases and pathologies that are inherited;
- damage to the urinary system during delivery, in particular the bile excreting pathways and the liver.
As medical practice shows, the jaundice of a physiological type disappears without a trace. In some cases, if there are concomitant causes, the disease can provoke the appearance of complicated consequences. If the cause of the appearance of jaundice is mechanical damage, then problems may arise in the functioning of the gallbladder and liver, as well as a violation of the full-fledged pathways leading to bile. It is possible to detect the occurrence of such effects no earlier than 2-3 weeks after delivery.
The baby’s skin will become uncharacteristically greenish, the urine will be too dark, and the feces, on the contrary, will become discolored. Along with the development of such diseases, the baby may experience an enlargement of the thyroid gland and thickening of the liver tissue. To identify pathological processes in a child, they take all the necessary tests and carry out an ultrasound diagnosis procedure. The treatment course is carried out necessarily under the clear and constant supervision of the attending specialist. You may need to stay the baby with his mother in the inpatient unit.
It is extremely rare, but in practice there are cases when jaundice, which appeared at birth, can develop into a very serious pathology. These include:
- conjugation jaundice;
- hepatic jaundice;
- nuclear jaundice.
The first type of disease may occur in violation of the full functioning of the liver. The organs of the baby do not cope with the conclusion of the formed bilirubin, respectively, the liver does not work fully or there are certain pathologies.
A very dangerous pathology is nuclear jaundice. With this disease, free bilirubin, which is contained in the child’s blood in an excessive amount, can affect the nervous system, thereby exerting a toxic effect on it.
Hepatic jaundice occurs when viral and bacteriological microorganisms enter the main filtration organ in the body. In all cases, the baby needs to undergo a comprehensive treatment course.
To determine the nature of the appeared yellow one, the treating specialist establishes the exact concentration of bilirubin in the blood of the newborn. Its quantity is measured in special arbitrary units - µmol / l. Immediately after birth, the level of bilirubin should not exceed 51 units. In the next 3-4 days it rises sharply. The norm is an increase in indicators of not more than 5.1 units per hour.
Thus, in the first days of life in full-term infants, the bilirubin index reaches 256 units. In premature babies, this indicator is less and equal to 171. On average, bilirubin concentration of 103-138 units is considered a normal indicator.
If the amount of bilirubin increases dramatically and exceeds the level of 290 units, then there are serious reasons for concern. In this case, the child is subject to immediate inspection.
Komarovsky gives advice
As you know, Dr. Komarovsky often gives his advice to young moms. The issue of combating jaundice in newborns is no exception. Here are a few tips from the famous TV journalist, how soon you can get rid of the jaundice:
- breastfeed your baby more often with breast milk;
- watch your diet - the diet should be balanced and somewhat dietary;
- the child needs to be in the fresh air more often, since walks in the sun will help to speed off the removal of bilirubin;
- Do not expose your baby to ultraviolet rays for too long, as burns may occur.
- Give the child a rosehip decoction - it is very active in the liver;
- after each feeding, a small gauze cut moistened in magnesia solution can be applied to the baby’s liver area - this will speed up the withdrawal of bilirubin;
- a child can be given glucose, but before that you should definitely consult with your doctor.
Such actions can be performed only with the appearance of a physiological type of yellow, when other diseases or pathologies are absent.
The zheltushka at the newborn passes already in the first week of life. In most cases, there is nothing to worry about. If, however, complications arise, you should seek qualified medical assistance. Health to you and your kids!