No one is immune from domestic injuries. Often we encounter various cuts, abrasions, bruises. But the most common injury is burns. Excessive heat, which affects the skin, can lead to serious consequences.
Skin burns: what are they?
In providing first aid to a burned person, not only the degree of damage, but also the aggressive factor that provoked the burn is of great importance. According to this, burns are classified into thermal burns, which occur when exposed to flames, hot liquids, steam.
Injuries of this nature may be of chemical origin, caused by acids or alkalis. In a separate group of burns emit solar. In addition, it is important to consider the duration of thermal or chemical exposure.
The combination of the area of the damaged surface and its depth is taken as the basis in the classification of burns. Accordingly, 4 degrees of lesion were identified.
With a burn of 1 degree, damage occurs to the upper layer of the epidermis (skin), on which redness and edema appear. These symptoms are accompanied by burning pain. Such injuries are very sensitive to touch, but despite this, wounds heal quickly, and after healing, scars and scars remain on the skin.
A burn of grade 2 is characterized by a deeper lesion of the epidermis, and detachment of the skin may occur. This degree of burns is characterized by a sharp reddening of the burned surface, on which blisters appear with transparent contents. Burns of these degrees are called superficial, since they are capable of self-healing.
The category of deep burns is burns of 3 and 4 degrees. In case of injuries of grade 3, damage occurs to the entire thickness of the skin with the formation of intense bubbles, which can be filled with a yellowish or gel-like liquid. Sensitivity can be markedly reduced, due to damage to the nerve endings in the burned area. Perhaps the formation of a scab, which is practically not sensitive to touch. In addition, burns of 3 degrees can be characterized by skin lesions with the capture of subcutaneous fat.
Burns of 4 degrees are characterized by killing not only the skin, cellulose, but underlying tissues - tendons, muscles, and even bone tissue.
First aid for burns: how to render correctly?
In order to constructively help the victim, it is necessary to consider exactly how the burn was received. Initially, you must immediately stop the traumatic factor. Further actions will depend on the cause that provoked the burn.
What to do when burned with boiling water?
If the cause of a burn is exposure to hot liquids, food, you must quickly remove contaminated clothing, which is an additional irritant. And then immediately, without losing a single minute, pour cold water on the burned areas. You can cool in various ways - immersion in cold water or dousing with water, applying ice and so on. It is necessary to cool the skin for at least 5 to 10 minutes, but, as a rule, relief comes immediately.-
It is strictly forbidden to cut, pierce blisters, otherwise it may threaten infection and prolonged recovery period.
Steam burn - what to do?
When providing first aid for a steam burn, you must observe the same sequence of actions as with boiling water. After cooling the affected surface, as a measure for the speedy healing of the affected tissues, you can use various solutions, oils and special preparations of a general class of keratoplastic. This group may include oil solution of vitamin A, sea buckthorn oilhttp: //womeninahomeoffice.com.ru/zdorovie/narodnaya-mediczina/bolezni-i-lechenie/oblepikhovoe-maslo-pri-ozhogakh, "Panthenol", etc. These drugs stimulate the regeneration of skin covers, and "Panthenol" has a slight analgesic effect.
What to do when burn oil?
It is necessary as soon as possible to substitute the affected skin area under cold, running water for 10–15 minutes; the exposure time to cold temperature will depend on the area and depth of the lesion. After it is necessary to dry the lesion with a clean cloth, a bandage, you can use waffle towels. It is convenient to remove the oil residues from the skin with cotton pads dipped in soapy water.
If the area of the burn is small and the skin just turns red and bubbles appear, then the dressing can be discarded. It will be sufficient to treat the damaged area with special aerosols, which are used in the treatment of superficial burns.
In the case of the emergence of large volume bubbles, which are filled with gray mass, or streaks of blood, urgent consultation of the doctor is necessary. Suitable trauma, a surgeon in the clinic.
Chemical burn: treatment
- Chemical burns involve exposure to various solutions, gases and substances. After the aggressive influence of alkalis or acids, a scab is formed on the skin of the victim — a whitish soft crust that forms after an alkali burn. It is alkali that is more aggressive than acid. After her deep burns, and after the acid - superficial. Only a week later, we can conclude about the degree of burn, because even after the completion of the chemical reagent, the skin continues to collapse.
- When rendering first aid, it is necessary to follow the same algorithm: remove the aggressive substance, and rinse with water. Washing with water, it may take even a few hours, everything will depend on the substance that caused the injury.
- In the future, it is necessary to neutralize the effects of acid, for example, drinking a solution of baking soda or soapy water (alkaline solutions). To neutralize the effects of alkali, you can use a solution of citric or 0.5 - 3 percent boric acid. After neutralizing it is necessary to attach a damp cold towel. Only after drying the affected skin area is it necessary to apply a dry and sterile dressing.
- According to statistics, most children suffer from burns, which can be explained by many reasons. Parents should take all actions to prevent the child from getting burned. It is worth remembering that when a temperature or a large degree of damage occurs, it is necessary to consult a specialist.
The most frequent trauma at home is a burn. According to the degree of complexity, they differ in 4 degrees, where the 1st is the easiest, and the 4th, respectively, the hardest. It is important for everyone to know how to classify various burns in order to properly provide first aid. Remember that for injuries of grade 3 and 4, you can not self-medicate! But even if inflammation begins in lungs, the temperature rises, the general condition worsens, it is necessary to consult a doctor immediately!