Pancreatic diseases can seriously affect human health. Sometimes they arise as a result of a lack or excess of enzymes produced by this body. One of these enzymes is amylase. What is the rate of its content in the blood of women and what signals deviations from it?
Blood amylase: what is it?
The enzyme amylase is produced by the pancreas and is involved in the processing of complex carbohydrates. Its main task is to digest the starch that comes with food, to the state of glucose.
Amylase is not only in the pancreas, but also in saliva, in the liver, in the intestines, in the fallopian tubes, although in these organs it is present in small quantities. In this regard, a small amount of the enzyme enters the blood.
In the body there are several types of amylase:
The most important role is played by alpha-amylase. There are 2 types of it:
- P-type (formed in the salivary glands);
- S-type (produced in the pancreas).
Alpha-amylase produce exocrine cells. The enzyme passes through the ducts into the duodenum, where it participates in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates. Normally, amylase should be delivered exclusively to the intestinal lumen, and only a small part of it enters the blood.
After that, the enzyme is neutralized in the liver, the remaining amount is excreted in the urine. If this mechanism is not violated, the level of amylase remains normal. With deviations in any link of this chain, an increase or decrease in the amount of the enzyme occurs, which leads to the development of serious diseases.
What is the rate of amylase in the blood?
The level of amylase is detected on the basis of biochemical analysis of blood. Material for research is taken on an empty stomach from a vein, however, in a particularly difficult case, blood can be taken immediately. It is necessary to take tests before 11 am The total fasting period should be at least 8 hours, but not more than 12 hours. At this time you can drink water, but drinks such as tea, alcohol, coffee, are prohibited.
In determining abnormalities, physicians rely on normal amounts of amylase. Indicators of P-type enzymes should be 2 times less than indicators of S-type.
The rates of amylase in the blood of women and men are identical. The first digit reflects the normal amount, the second - the maximum.
For children up to a year - from 5 to 60 U / l;
From year to 50 years - from 20 to 100 U / l;
From 50 years old - from 25 to 120 U / l.
In deciphering the biochemical analysis of blood to indicate the norm of amylase, indicators from 3.3 to 8.9 are used.
The rate of pancreatic amylase should not exceed 50 units.
Mechanical damage, injuries, bruises in the abdomen immediately before the analysis and some factors that temporarily increase the level of the enzyme can affect the results of the study, provided that the pancreas is healthy:
- disturbances in the diet;
- alcohol intake;
- medication use (diuretics, osteal steroids, pressure lowering drugs, diuretics, contraceptives, etc.);
- shock, stress.
Rising or lowering the norm is equally dangerous, but they indicate the presence of various diseases.
A blood test for biochemistry is usually prescribed for pancreatitis. With the defeat of the pancreatic pancreatic juice stagnates, and the walls of blood vessels become less permeable. As a result, enzymes do not pass into the intestines, but directly into the blood.
Violation of the norm of amylase in the blood of adults in the direction of increasing is called hyperamylasemia, and it indicates the development of the following diseases:
- cholecystitis, diseases of the gallbladder and biliary tract;
- urolithiasis disease;
- renal failure;
- urolithiasis disease;
- remote pancreas;
- cystic fibrosis;
- pancreas cancer;
- ectopic pregnancy in women;
- inflammation in the peritoneal organs;
- viral infections.
It should be remembered that the increase in the level of 5-10 units is not a significant deviation. Much more dangerous if the rate is exceeded several times.
Low amylase levels
Reduced amylase activity is much less commonly diagnosed. It may be present in such diseases:
- pancreatic necrosis (destruction of the pancreas);
- oncology organ;
- removal of part or all of the pancreas;
- genetic disorders.
Amylase in pregnant women
Norm amylase in pregnant women in the blood corresponds to the standard. If there is an increase, it indicates such violations in the body:
- chronic pancreatitis (the norm is exceeded by 5 times);
- stones or swelling in the pancreas;
- ectopic pregnancy (rate exceeded 8 times).
A decrease in the norm can be observed in such cases:
- hereditary diseases;
- bouts of pancreatitis.
How necessary is a blood test for biochemistry?
Along with the study of the level of amylase in the serum can be assigned to the analysis of the level of the enzyme in the urine. This type of research is conducted if acute pancreatitis is suspected. In this case, changes in the norm of the enzyme in the urine are held for a long time. The discrepancy between the levels of amylase in urine and serum indicates the presence of disease.
However, biochemical blood tests may be more valuable than urine tests. In some cases, the enzyme forms compounds with immunoglobulins and does not penetrate into the urine. Then the conclusion is done on the results of blood tests.
The importance of biochemical research in cases of suspected pancreatic diseases cannot be overestimated. It allows you to identify the full range of enzymes, compare patient performance with the norm and decide on treatment. If you suspect a malfunction of the pancreas, you must donate blood for biochemistry. A timely visit to the doctor can save lives.
Treatment is prescribed based on the results of the analysis. In addition to medical drugs, a gentle diet is recommended, the purpose of which is to reduce the amount of carbohydrates and fats consumed. Forbidden vegetables with a pungent smell and taste, alcoholic beverages, coffee.
Perhaps treatment with herbs, folk remedies - after consultation with the doctor.
Diseases of the pancreas - a serious violation in the work of the whole organism, requiring timely diagnosis. An invaluable role in determining the level of the enzyme amylase in the blood is played by its biochemical analysis. Thanks to him, he manages to figure out the cause of the disease quite accurately and in time and prescribe the appropriate treatment.