In official Russian medicine, Diaskintest has been known since 2008, but it is still not widespread, as a result of which there are many questions about both the procedure and the further decoding of the results. What is its essence, how to make it independently, and when it is necessary to resort to Diaskintest? Are there any contraindications to the procedure?
Diaxintest: what is it and how is it done?
Diaskintest is the fastest and most accurate version of the test for tuberculosis and is most often used by young mothers, and is also recommended to those who were diagnosed after the Mantoux reaction. The frequency of occurrence of allergic reactions, especially in babies, has led to the fact that they talk about tuberculosis in almost every third case, but it is highly undesirable to use chemical preparations for the child without an accurate diagnosis. This was the reason for the development of a rapid method for determining the state of the organism.
- Designed by the Academy. Sechenov, Diaskintest passed all preclinical and clinical trials, received the highest rating, and was recognized as safe and completely non-toxic, as a result of which it was allowed to be carried out even in young children.
- The basis of the solution is proteins that react only with pathogens of tuberculosis, as a result of which the possibility of incorrect results is excluded, as often happens with the Mantoux test. Due to high sensitivity, a positive result is observed only in the presence of tuberculosis at any stage of development, up to the primary infection. If the disease has been completely eliminated, Diaskintest will not show a tuberculous reaction, which makes it possible to track the effectiveness of the treatment.
- The key difference of Diaskintest from the Mantoux test is in the causative agents: the synthetic ESAT6 / CPF is used for Diaskintest. This determines its main advantage - it does not confirm the Mantoux reaction caused by other causes than tuberculosis infection, since it does not perceive other bacteria.
- In addition to the synthetic protein, sodium chloride, phenol, polysorbate, and water for injection are present in the solution.
- The procedure is similar to that carried out for the Mantoux test: a sitting patient under the skin in the forearm, in the center, is injected with the drug, after which you need to wait a short period of time so that the reaction to the substance appears. If the procedures are carried out simultaneously, different hands are used for them.
At the same time, there are several points with which it is important to become familiar before registering for the Diaskintest.
- Firstly, if the BCG procedure was carried out or another preventive vaccination was delivered, after it you need to take a "rest" for 30-35 days: this will allow you to get more accurate results from Diaskintest. However, as the comments of experts show, the test after vaccination will not give a positive reaction.
- Secondly, after the procedure, it is also undesirable for 72 hours to allow contact of the sample site with water - this often leads to falsification of the result due to the reaction of proteins to another allergen.
- Thirdly, Diaskintest can be performed even with an allergic person; however, desensitizing therapy is required for 5-7 days before the procedure, as well as its renewal for 2 days after the test. The results before the measurement of the latter is not affected.
If Diaskintest is carried out not once, but in order to monitor the patient's condition, the interval between samples should be at least 3 months, but can be extended up to six months.
The procedure is carried out by the nominated phthisiatrician nurse; the service can be provided in the district clinic, free of charge. However, at the same time, experts often ask you to purchase a tuberculin syringe and a thin needle with an oblique cut in advance.
Diaskintest: contraindications to the procedure
Often, those who are unfamiliar with this procedure, the question arises - whether Diaskintest will cause a negative reaction of the body and will not become a prerequisite for the occurrence of tuberculosis? Doctors claim that, despite the fact that the proteins in the solution are synthetic, they are taken from E. coli strains that have passed the stage of genetic change, and are absolutely safe from the point of view of provocation of tuberculosis. Diaskintest is well tolerated even by the most sensitive organism, but there are still some contraindications and limitations.
- SARS and acute respiratory infections in the acute stage, any chronic diseases caused by infection, and accompanied by fever, require the abolition of the procedure. They do not always affect the results, but in most cases they worsen the patient's condition.
- For people with epilepsy, in the case of frequent and uncontrolled seizures, Diaskintest is prohibited.
- Diseases of the internal organs in the acute stage, as well as aggravated skin reactions are the reason for canceling the procedure.
- Children up to the year Diaskintest are allowed only with serious prerequisites for its implementation, established by the attending physician.
As in the case of the Mantoux test, within a few hours after the solution is injected, a slight increase in body temperature is possible, as well as headache, weakness, and rapid fatigue. Symptoms go away on their own. In rare cases, the procedure is accompanied by swelling of the forearm, which most often happens when it is carried out in the acute stage of infectious diseases.
Evaluation of Diaskintest results
The most difficult in such procedures - the subsequent reading of their results. This should be done by a specialist, but often before his visit, those who did the test begin to experience seeing a skin reaction. What is the norm of Diaskintest, and how to measure its performance?
- The absolute negative reaction is the absence of any skin lesions for 72 hours, in addition to the puncture point, capable of reaching up to 2 mm in width. It is worth noting that with the result of the Mantoux test this may absolutely not coincide, and with a similar result from Diaskintest, the Mantoux papule may be 15 mm in diameter, which indicates its falsity.
- At the time of the procedure, there may be a formation of 7–9 mm in diameter, which is lighter than the main skin area, color.
- In the case of a positive reaction to the procedure (formation of a width of 2 mm), the division is made by degree: weak (up to 5 mm), moderate (up to 9 mm), strong (up to 14 mm) or hyperergic (from 15 mm).
- It is also possible the manifestation of hypermenia (painful red spots in the sample area caused by the accumulation of blood) or a weak hematoma in the absence of an increase in papules. Accounting for the vascular reaction is made only in case of exclusion of skin formation: this indicates a dubious reaction and must be re-checked or screened for tuberculosis.
Few doctors emphasize that Diaskintest is performed twice, even if there is a negative result: this gives the maximum possible guarantee that the body is not really infected with the tuberculosis virus.