From time to time, every person has to undergo a simple diagnosis: usually it includes not only planned visits to specialists, but also a number of tests - blood, urine, feces. In the results, outstanding after a blood test, sometimes you can meet a mysterious word - anisocytosis. What is it and how dangerous is it? Is it possible to independently read the tests and determine their future behavior?
What is anisocytosis and what is the rate in the general blood test?
The general definition of anisocytosis is the imbalance in the size of red blood cells that make up blood. However, it is not quite true, since there are various forms and subtypes of it, therefore, in order to fully understand the picture that should appear at the mention of anisocytosis, one should recall the properties and peculiarities of blood.
In this fluid connective tissue, not only plasma is present, but also a number of active elements: platelets, leukocytes, and erythrocytes. The task of the latter is to regulate the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as well as transport nutrients through vessels. At the same time, red blood cells are subdivided in their size into several groups, the ratio of which must be strictly observed for the correct functioning of the circulatory system. Normocytes are the most important category, constituting 70% of all red blood cells: their diameter varies between 7.1 and 9 μm. Macrocytes and microcytes equally divide the remaining 30% and are more than 8 microns and less than 6.9 microns in diameter, respectively. These indicators are relevant for a healthy person, and in case of deviations in the body, megalocytes (as small as 12 microns in diameter) can appear just as well, and the balance between normo-macro and microcytes can change. The last oscillations associated with a decrease in the number of normocytes are determined by the strange word "anisocytosis". However, this is not his only option.
- Macrocytosis is detected when macrocytes prevail over other sizes: it is often preceded by anemia with iron deficiency and excess lead, including poisoning with this element, as well as thallassemia. Microcytosis - in the case of the prevalence of microcytes: it is accompanied by a deficiency of vitamins B9 and B12, liver damage and prolonged alcohol intoxication. A mixed version is diagnosed with an equal ratio of each option and can be complicated not only by changing the size of red blood cells.
- According to the data provided in the blood test results, it is possible to establish not only the fact of anisocytosis, but also its degree: the first is characterized by an increase in the share of micro and macrocytes up to 50%, the second is up to 70%, and the most recent, 3 -I degree, says about the almost complete absence of other sizes of red blood cells.
Anisocytosis of platelets: symptoms and causes
There is also the concept of platelet anisocytosis, which is also characterized by a significant change in the size of these blood cells, as a result of which their correct ratio is disturbed. Unlike erythrocyte anisocytosis, this form of change in the blood indicates poor oxygen transport. Concerning the symptoms of the problem, there is often confusion, and instead of anisocytosis, the person assumes the presence of heart failure.
- This disorder is accompanied by the following manifestations: lack of air, shortness of breath, which occurs without a serious reason and is accompanied by an increase in pulse rate, even if it was not preceded by physical exertion; uneven pallor of the skin, as well as rapid exhaustion, weakness, inability to concentrate and perform simple tasks.
- Anisocytosis of platelets has a thin connecting thread with anemia, as it may occur due to iron deficiency, but much more often among the prerequisites for this disease is a lack of vitamin A, which is the cause for anisocytosis of any of the blood elements. In addition, one cannot exclude stimulating the production of blood cells, vitamin B12, a drop in the level of which can also be a secondary cause for anisocytosis.
In addition, experts often diagnose this disorder after failures in the bone marrow and blood transfusion, but the latter nuance does not require treatment, because the problem is resolved on its own in a short period of time. It is impossible to say this about other versions of the origin of anisocytosis, as a result of which it is important to correctly and quickly establish a violation and identify its root cause.
Is there any difference between anisocytosis and poikilocytosis?
In addition to the already considered disturbances in the blood elements, on the forms with the results of the analyzes one can also find the word anikocytosis, poikilocytosis. How close are they?
- Poikilocytosis also means changes in red blood cells (in rare cases - platelets), but not by increasing or decreasing their size, but through deformation. A healthy erythrocyte is presented in the form of a uniformly colored bright scarlet biconcave disc, the concavity zone of which is equidistant from the edge. An erythrocyte affected by poikilocytosis can change both its shape and color (not the color, but the degree of saturation). Each of these changes has its own name, often indicated when blood test results are displayed. But another point is more important. If anisocytosis often allows you to determine the initial stage of anemia, poikilocytosis usually occurs in the case of advanced anisocytosis and signals a moderate or severe degree of anemia.
By complexity, poikilocytosis is divided into 4 groups from 1st to 4th, which are indicated by the number of plus signs: the proportion of deformed erythrocytes in each of them increases by 25%, reaching the last degree until the complete absence of Taurus of normal form and density. As for specific definitions, they can also be divided into several categories.
- Schizocytes (presence of erythrocyte fragments), drepanocytes (crescent-shaped parts), echinocytes (appearance of growths), anulocytes (empty circles), ovalocytes (also present in the case of leukemia) are characteristic of severe forms of anemia. Drip deformation is also possible.
- Forms of moderate anemia are characterized by spherocytes (occurring in individuals with an artificial heart valve), stomatocytes (gap in the center), acanthocytes (teeth), target-like red blood cells (change in density through the accumulation of saturation towards the center). The same deformations occur in severe liver disorders, including poor-quality formations in its cells.
Before diagnosing anisocytosis in the general blood test, it is important to take into account the physiological abnormality when the diameter of the erythrocyte is in the corridor from 5.89 to 9.13. Secondly, consider the size of all red blood cells and determine their percentage ratio in the column "red blood cells", as well as on the Price-Jones curve. But in any case, the diagnosis must be made by the attending physician. To make a course of therapy is also recommended with its help in order to eliminate the cause, and not to drown out the effect.