General characteristics of "Amoksiklava" - a broad spectrum antibacterial drug based on semi-synthetic antibiotic. However, it should be noted that the tool does not work with bacteria producing penicillinase. What helps "Amoxiclav"? How to understand the complexity of its dosage for pediatric therapy? What precautions are important when starting a treatment?
"Amoxiclav": a general description of the drug
The main active ingredient of "Amoksiklava" - amoxicillin, supplemented with clavulanic acid, is an antibiotic of semi-synthetic origin, falling into the category of penicillins. Clavulanic acid in its pure form does not carry antimicrobial properties, but acts as an inhibitor of beta-lactams and enhances the effect of amoxicillin. This feature allows you to use the drug against any pathogenic organisms, as well as aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
- The maximum concentration of the active substance is fixed after 60 minutes. after administration, while the distribution in the tissues occurs evenly. Amoxicillin has the ability to penetrate the liquid, but does not pass through the blood-brain, if there were no violations of the meninges. The concentration and rate of its accumulation do not depend on the method of taking the drug.
- Removal of the antibiotic is done by the kidneys, partial - for 1.5 hours in the absence of disturbances in the functioning of this organ. If renal failure is diagnosed, the limiting time for elimination by the Amoksiklava component is 7.5-8 hours.
Like any antibiotics, Amoxiclav has a suppressive effect on the intestinal microflora, which with long-term therapy can cause dysbacteriosis, stool disorders, epigastric pain. It also interferes with the synthesis of vitamin K.
Separately, attention should be paid to the drug interaction of "Amoksiklava" with certain drugs:
- The drug reduces the effectiveness of the use of contraceptives, as well as bacteriostatic antibiotics.
- The simultaneous use of Amoxiclav and bactericidal antibiotics leads to an increase in both their effectiveness and the likelihood of side reactions from any of the ligament preparations.
- The use of diuretics and NSAIDs leads to an increase in the concentration of amoxicillin in the blood plasma, and vitamin C contributes to its better absorption. Glycosides, anti-viruses and most laxative drugs can have the opposite effect.
Indications and contraindications
What helps "Amoxiclav"? Most often it is used to treat inflammatory processes caused by infection: these can be viral problems of the respiratory system (bronchitis, sore throat, etc.), and infectious diseases of the bladder, kidneys, digestive tract, and skin, but here Do not include allergies.
- If necessary, Amoxiclav can be combined with clavulinic acid preparations (to increase its concentration in the treatment of gonorrhea, mucosal lesions and listerosis), as well as metronidazole (treatment of acute stages of peptic ulcer and gastritis).
The number of contraindications for Amoxiclav, as with most antibiotics, is significantly higher than the number of indications for use. In what situations is the drug prohibited, and when can it be used with caution?
- Despite the fact that the antibiotic is focused on infectious diseases, it should not be used for the severe stages of diseases of the digestive tract and biliary organs, disorders of the liver (especially when accompanied with vomiting), during respiratory infections. With care "Amoksiklav" can be applied during an allergic diathesis.
- There is a high probability of exacerbation of the patient with asthma and hay fever.
- Undesirable therapy using "Amoksiklava" in children under 5 years of age, admission is completely prohibited at the age of up to 2 years.
- During pregnancy, the drug can be used only on the advice of a doctor, and during the feeding period during treatment it is necessary to wean the newborn from the breast, since amoxicillin is passed from the mother's milk.
- When combining "Amoksiklava" with metronidazole, contraindications of hematopoiesis and nervous system, as well as lymphatic leukemia, become contraindications.
- Increased dosage of clavulinic acid together with Amoxiclav is prohibited for persons with hepatic and renal insufficiency, as well as hepatitis.
- The drug is prohibited to persons with high sensitivity to the cephalosporin series and penicillins. During therapy is not allowed the use of alcoholic beverages.
How to calculate the dosage of the drug "Amoxiclav" for children?
The main difficulty in the use of the drug is in the calculation of the dosage, as well as the choice of method of therapy. The tool is available in powder format for dilution, after which the suspension is used inside. It is also possible cases of administration of the antibiotic intravenously or intramuscularly.
- Absorption of active ingredients occurs with the same efficiency as with an empty stomach, and with full, so the meal on the result of therapy has no effect.
Before calculating individual dosages for each age or degree of sensitivity, it is necessary to turn the dry powder into a complete solution. For this, it is required to pour distilled water into the vial (the one in which the powder is!), Following its level: the label is left on the vial itself.
- The amount of water added depends on the volume of the bottle: the initial data are 35, 50, 70 and 140 ml, which will need 29.5, 42, 59 and 118 ml, respectively.
After combining the powder with water, the vial needs to be shaken until the dry mass is completely dissolved, which, according to the doctors' assurances, takes 2-3 minutes, as the powder reluctantly disperses. It is recommended to pour water in several stages to facilitate this process.
- The daily dosage for children should not exceed 40 mg of active substance per kg of body weight of the child, if the severe stage of the disease is tolerated. For its normal flow, the proportion of the active substance decreases to 20 mg.
- The specified amount of the drug the child is divided into 2-3 doses, keeping between them an interval of 8-12 hours.
- Children under 3 months should not be given more than 30 mg per kg of body weight, even during the exacerbation of infections. For children over this age, 20 mg per kg of weight is considered the lower threshold.
There are 3 variations of "Amoksiklava": these are 125, 250 and 400 mg of the active substance. Dosing is carried out using a measuring spoon of 5 ml or a syringe, put into each package with the drug.
- If therapy is carried out with 400 mg of the active substance, children for each kg of body weight give no more than 25 mg divided into 2 uses. For severe infections, you can increase the volume to 45 mg.
As for determining the dosage of the 250 mg Amoksiklava suspension for children, the general recommendations are as follows: for every even age, add 0.5 ml of the initial dosage — she is considered to be 2 years old at which 0 is used, 5 ml of suspension 3 times a day. For severe infections, it is allowed to raise the level to 3 ml.
- Children younger than a year and weighing up to 10 kg - 1/4 scoop or 1.25 ml 2-3 times a day.
Despite the above information, remember that only the doctor can calculate the most accurate dosage of Amoxiclav for a child, focusing on the sensitivity of the baby, the severity of the disease and other factors. To resort to self-treatment with antibiotics is not advised, even in the most extreme cases.