Every person at least once in his life measured blood pressure and as a result received two indicators. However, not all of us know what they mean and what they depend on. In this article we will try to figure out what the upper and lower pressure of a person means.
What does the upper and lower pressure of a person mean?
Blood pressure is the result of the work of the heart as a constituent organ for pumping blood through the vessels. The pressure in the contraction of the heart muscle and the pushing of blood into the aorta is called the systolic or upper limit. It is the upper pressure that is considered a critical indicator by which the presence of deviations and failures in the body is determined.
The pressure at the moment when the walls of the ventricle relax and the aortic valve closes is called the diastolic or lower limit. This is what lower pressure means. Its threshold is less significant and may indicate the presence of chronic hypertension.
Factors Influencing Pressure Indicators
The main factors affecting changes in blood pressure, in medicine, consider the age, weight and height of a person. This is evidenced by numerous studies conducted in this area. For example, scientists say that in people with a full physique, an increase in blood pressure is possible in 90% of cases. While thin to this phenomenon are subject to only 10%.
It is also believed that to increased pressure more people are located in old age. Recently, however, there has been a tendency to “rejuvenate” this factor: often the pressure rises in people of the age group from 20 to 30 years, as well as in adolescents.
However, factors affecting changes in pressure do not end there. There are also a number of external circumstances that are interrelated with a decrease or increase in the arterial threshold. These include:
- physical exercise;
- intense brain activity;
- sleep disturbance;
- weather conditions;
- alcohol and tobacco;
- stressful situations.
Changes in pressure in humans during the day within 30-40 mm Hg is considered normal. So, for example, after waking up, the pressure is slightly lower than in the phase of active work of the organism. An interesting fact is that during the period of the menstrual cycle, the pressure in women is significantly reduced. And in the period of the onset of menopause, it may change from normal boundaries in a big way.
Human pressure: the norm by age
In medicine, there is a certain indicator of a fixed blood pressure value - these are 120/80 and 135/85. If you have such indicators of pressure, you can be sure about your health. In some young people and adolescents, 90/60 mm Hg may be considered the norm of pressure.
The main value, which focuses on measuring blood pressure, is considered to be age norms.
Table of the norm of pressure in humans by age
|Age category||Upper threshold pressure (mm / Hg. Art.)||Lower pressure threshold (mm / Hg. Art.)|
|20-40 years old||120-130||70-80|
|Over 60 years old||150||90|
As can be seen in the table, normal pressure increases with age. This is due to wear of the muscles of the heart, the weakening of its work and the thinning of the walls of blood vessels.
The change in pressure in a big way in medicine is called hypertension. There are several degrees of the disease:
- up to 160/100 mm Hg Art. - 1 degree;
- up to 180/110 mm Hg Art. - 2 degree;
- more than 180/110 mm Hg. Art. - 3 degree.
Reducing pressure to 100/60 and 95/60 in medicine means that a person may develop hypotension.
How to check the pressure?
When measuring blood pressure, it is worth considering the fact that it will be different in different arteries. For the standard unit is considered to be the pressure that is formed in the forearm artery. It is measured using a special device called a tonometer. It is of two types: mechanical (manual) and automatic.
If you measure your pressure for the first time, then to calculate the most accurate result, you need to check it on both forearms, since the values may vary within 10 mm Hg. Art. The basis is the hand where the pressure is higher.
To obtain reliable results when testing pressure follow the following rules:
- blood pressure is measured only in a calm person: sit for a while, restore breathing, normalize the pulse;
- eliminate the possible influence of external factors on the measurement accuracy (loud noise, vibration);
- before measuring the pressure for an hour, do not eat any foods, especially coffee drinks, and also it is advisable to refrain from smoking;
- take a sitting position, relax the muscles of the body, do not cross your legs;
- free the forearm, which will measure blood pressure, from clothes;
- refrain from any conversations and body movements.
When measuring the pressure with a mechanical tonometer, the entire procedure must be carried out independently. A detailed description of the process can be found in the instructions. To measure the pressure with an automatic tonometer, all you have to do is just put a cuff on your arm. The device itself inflates the air and displays the value obtained on the dial.
What to do with pressure?
If you find yourself with a pressure with a deviation from the norm, then it is absolutely impossible to take any measures for self-treatment. In order to establish the exact reasons for his decline or increase, contact your GP or cardiologist for help. After establishing the causes of pressure deviations from the norm, the doctor will prescribe an appropriate treatment and medication.
So, summing up, we can conclude that the change in pressure depends on many influencing factors. Therefore, it is not worthwhile to sound the alarm in advance, especially not to self-medicate without finding out the reason. The best way out would be to consult a doctor. Be healthy!