Cancer is a disease that everyone fears. The chances of recovery from the discovery of such a disease depends largely on when treatment is started. Today, there are diagnostic methods that help identify the tumor at an early stage. These are oncomarkers. Let's talk about such analyzes, let's see what the sa-125 blood test means and how to decipher it.
Life Saving Diagnostics
Dealing with diagnoses, prescribing tests is the business of doctors, but it is also useful for ordinary people to know about tumor markers. What is it and how can they recognize the presence of a malignant tumor? The appearance of any neoplasms is accompanied by the production of specific proteins. If a person is healthy, such molecules are also present, but in meager concentrations. Substandard tumors have special marks. Thus, the Sa-125 oncomarker can indicate, in particular, ovarian cancer.
Why be tested for the presence of antigen and what does the blood test sa-125 mean? It will help to detect such problems:
- establish whether there is a risk that a person will get cancer;
- will reveal a tumor at an early stage (when other studies - MRI, ultrasound, X-ray - still do not show it);
- determine the nature of the tumor - benign, oncological. This can be recognized by the serum concentration of the corresponding tumor marker;
- will help monitor the effectiveness of treatment and evaluate its results;
- With such a diagnosis, it is possible to prevent the recurrence of cancer and monitor the condition of the patient.
If you go to the medical language, the tumor marker sa-125 is a complex protein glycoprotein. In a mature woman, it is found in the liquid substance of the uterus and healthy endometrial tissue. If the physiological barrier is destroyed (with artificial interruption of pregnancy, menstruation, endometriosis, in the first three months after the conception of the child), then this protein enters the blood.
A serious question: what result is considered bad?
Oncomarker sa 125 is a blood test. What does it mean, we figured out, and it should be taken once a year (for women who are at risk for ovarian cancer - twice a year).
In representatives of different sexes, the result of blood Sa-125 is evaluated differently. Here is its decoding. The norm for non-pregnant women - cancer antigen should be in the range of 11-13 U / ml; for men, 10 U / ml is normal. Anything above 35 U / ml is already a pathology - urgent medical consultation is required.
Antigen sa 125 more than normal: what is it?
What does a slight excess indicate (by several units)? A slight deviation from the norm can be observed in:
- polycystic inflammation of the epididymis;
- some somatic diseases - peritonitis, pleurisy, cirrhosis of the liver, recurrent pancreatitis.
- A significant deviation (several times) from normal values indicates the following diseases:
- ovarian cancer (exceeding the figures noted in 80% of patients), the uterus and its mucosa, oviducts;
- malignant tumors in the digestive organs, mammary glands;
- cancer of the intestine, stomach, liver, pancreas;
- cancer in the respiratory system.
A significant excess of the critical indicator is observed in inflammatory diseases of the reproductive organs and if a non-cancer gynecological tumor develops.
An increase in antigen during pregnancy is not dangerous, because it is due to physiological factors.
Indicators of glycoprotein in various diseases
If there is a suspicion of pathology on the part of the appendages, it is prescribed sa 125 (blood test). What does the result mean if the norm is exceeded? Consider some possible options.
If there is an inflammatory process or a benign tumor, then the content of sa-125 will not exceed 100 U / ml. If a cyst has formed on the ovaries, the glycoprotein will be within 60 U / ml. With endometriosis, the concentration of such a substance sometimes reaches 100 IU / ml, which is 10 times higher than the norm. Immediate treatment is required.
With uterine myoma (this disease makes up to 20% of all gynecological pathologies), the maximum value of the marker is 110 U / ml.
If a woman over the age of 55 has found that the amount of cancer antigen 125 is doubled (reaches 70 U / ml), this is practically the exact sign of the presence of cancer. In any case, if the result is 120-160 U / ml, the tumor is probably located in the ovary, because it is in this area that the described tumor marker “works” best of all.
Monitoring sa 125 levels is important not only to recognize cancer and metastases. It will help to understand whether the treatment gives the expected effect, as well as to detect the recurrence of the disease. If in the first 3 months after the start of treatment, the index drops, this is a good sign. If he fell to zero (or slightly higher), it means complete remission has come.
How to pass the analysis so that it gives a truthful result?
To make the diagnosis accurate, you should properly prepare for the delivery of venous blood. Her fence is made on an empty stomach (food can be no later than 8 hours before the analysis, but the interval between the last meal and the blood donation should not be more than 14 hours). Blood is allowed to donate before the treatment began, or 2 weeks after the end of the course. If, however, it is impossible to cancel the medication, then in the direction of the doctor must make a note about what the patient takes the medicine and in what doses.
Three days before the analysis, it is recommended to go on a diet: remove fried, fatty, salty, alcohol from the menu. Drinks are allowed only water. Also undesirable physical exertion. The analysis is not carried out after instrumental examinations, physiotherapy, massage procedures, radiography and other medical procedures.
They donate blood early in the morning - from 7 to 11 am. Before taking it is necessary to refrain from smoking (for 2 hours). Also, emotional over-excitement should be excluded; you should not quickly run up the stairs or rush for analysis. 15 minutes before the procedure, you need to relax, calm down.
Conducting a laboratory study of blood taken from a patient and deciphering the results requires high professionalism and thoroughness of specialists: this is the only way to eliminate a mistake and choose the right treatment. From the fact that the analysis of antigen sa 125 shows, the further fate of a person depends, therefore one should be very careful in choosing a medical institution. If you have any doubts about the accuracy of diagnosis, you will have to do a second analysis, but it should be carried out in the same laboratory.
If you have taken the result and found that ca 125 is above 35 U / ml, then do not lose composure. After all, on the basis of only this analysis it is impossible to make an accurate diagnosis. Usually, this marker is analyzed in combination with HE 4, which increases its sensitivity up to 80%, and the probability of detecting cancer - up to 96%. Go to the doctor and continue the examination!