Weed grasses are the main problem of any dacha, which in its relevance eclipses both diseases and pests. In the struggle with it, gardeners spend their whole lives, and if experienced gardeners for a few years derive the formula for a successful battle, then beginners have a hard time.
Weeds: names and photos
There is a classification of weeds that most often appear in garden plots in the middle lane.
A beautiful yellow sunny flower - a dandelion - with its outward appearance of harm causes a lot. Because it grows usually wherever there is land, not even the most fertile. And if his breeding does not interfere, he will soon seize the whole garden. It is characterized by arrow-shaped stems, reaching 35 cm in height, with a long rhizome. It has a flowering period from mid-spring to early autumn, the seeds ripen in place of yellow flowers already in late May. Already at a temperature of 2 degrees above zero, it makes its way out of the ground, the seeds sprout on almost any soil. Even crushed rhizome or its remnants in the soil can give new growth.
Osot-very similar to its yellow terry flowers on a dandelion, but even more harmful. It comes from the aster family, has the same root as the dandelion, core root system and pinto-split leaves. Flowering begins in June and lasts all summer, after which the plant seeds ripen. Their number reaches 50 thousand from the stem.
The shoots were noticed as early as April, do not exceed 20 cm in height, grow most actively among garden field crops, as well as in wastelands. In the field of sowing grain, field sows appear more often, whose viability in the substrate is 5 years, and the main root is buried by 25-30 cm. The secondary ones are well regenerated and are closer to the surface - at a depth of 7-8 cm.
The common oats are actively distributed in fields planted with spring crops, and in its appearance this weed grass is easily confused with ordinary oats: straight stems reaching 1 m in height, lanceolate narrow leaves, inflorescences, panicles, which later form long seeds, shaped like a spindle. Just like any other grain crops. In the substrate, its root retains its viability for 10 years, at any temperature above zero at the beginning of spring the stem is hatching. Seeds ripen closer to the end of summer, up to 500-600 pieces per 1 plant. The rhizome is fibrous, i.e. formed from many side roots without the presence of the main.
Weed cannabis actively populates middle-range vegetable gardens if it is not opposed to it in time. High strong stems, stretching to 1.5 m, with alternate toothed leaves have the same aroma as cultural hemp. The weed has a taproot root, and is weakly buried deeply, as a result of which it is eliminated from the soil without problems, without breaking off. Seeds in the form of nuts, falling into the ground at low temperatures, die, the winter cold can not tolerate. Therefore, their viability is extremely low. The stems begin to pee off already at a temperature of 2 degrees above zero. Flowering begins in June, the seeds ripen by August. 1 plant has up to 2 thousand nuts.
The field cabbage is related to the white or cauliflower only by its origin: it also belongs to the cruciferous family. However, this is a weed grass: branched stems up to 1 m high, alternate leaves, pale yellow inflorescences with a capitate stigma. The root rhizome is 5 cm deep. Weed cabbage grows in vegetable gardens and among spring crops, especially actively appearing in places with high soil moisture. Externally, it may be confused with mustard, however, the color of its leaves and stem has a pronounced gray subton.
The main means of weed control in the garden
- Taking care of weed prevention is much easier than removing them. Therefore, every gardener should know how to prevent the emergence of weeds in his plot. The main method in this situation is plowing the land before planting with the removal of rhizomes of weeds, which reduces the likelihood of their germination by more than half. However, to give a guarantee that no other weeds will self-sow, no one can.
- The next method of prevention is soil mulching. Its essence lies in the creation of a dense layer of a certain decaying material (straw, spruce branches, newspapers, etc.), which does not allow weeds to penetrate through it. In addition, it is a natural fertilizer and insulation for the roots of cultivated plants. In between rows for this purpose, use of ruberoid and covering film.
- You can hold and temporary shelter: it is used for unplanted land, where later perennials will be. The bed is covered with black film, which is carefully fixed along the edges with bricks, heavy sticks, etc. For 30-40 days, the existing weeds will burn out.
- On empty beds, where you plan to sow, you can make watering boiling water. But this method is not suitable for large areas, as it requires too much force. Here it is much easier to treat with a general-purpose chemical.
- Weedy weed after moistening the soil: so the rhizomes are easier to eliminate and will not remain in the ground. After that, it is recommended to dry the roots in the sun and chop them. The stems, especially if flowers appear on them, are processed into compost. It is forbidden to leave them in the garden: the seeds of many weeds can wait for hours in shallow depths for years, and weeding will be useless due to the early emergence of new shoots. It is desirable to withstand the weeding schedule with a frequency of 1 every 14-15 days.
Chemical weed control: a technique
We can also fight weeds by using chemicals, however, such a step is an extreme measure. One way or another, the product will fall on useful crops, as well as be absorbed into the soil, which does not always have a positive effect on the quality of the crop. Preparations used in the war against weeds are called herbicides. Often they are processed substrate, slightly less - weeds themselves. All the diversity of these chemicals is divided according to several criteria: their composition, the effect on the plant and the method of penetration into it.
The most extensive group is inorganic species of herbicides, which includes all existing, excluding various types of mineral oils and dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. For the most part, chemical preparations destroy any herbs, but there are also those that are toxic to a particular class, while remaining harmless to the rest. Some of them have a narrowly targeted action: penetrates only a certain part of the plant; a part is transferred along the vascular-conducting system, as a result of which it affects the weeds completely. By zones, herbicides are divided into those that affect only the root, and therefore are introduced into the substrate before the emergence of shoots, and those that are able to penetrate through the leaves.
Using these drugs, it is important to know that they can only be applied to a moistened soil, otherwise they may not reach their destination. It is difficult to introduce a herbicide into heavy and downed soil: the ground should be loose and light.
Means of continuous action are applied only on the non-planted zone, since they do not spare both the desired crops and the harmful ones. Usually they are used before the start of the season, when digging up the ground. Selective same - those that have a narrowly targeted action - can be used throughout the season: such herbicides do not harm crop plants. However, the main use of chemicals is before planting, and not during the growth of a cultivated plant.
Weed control on potatoes: features
From the site where the potatoes will grow, weeds are eliminated with particular diligence. The main pest of this culture is creeping couch grass, whose root system is known not only for its length and spreading, but also an ideal place for the wireworm. Simple weeding in this case almost does not give results, therefore in August all the land is treated with herbicide.
Gardeners recommend using Tornado. If you follow the instructions correctly, the wheat grass leaves will start to turn yellow in 14-19 days, by the 24th day all weed grass will dry out. This indicates the death of the roots. Repeated chemical input is not required. Other weeds are birch, herbicides are reluctant to take swine, and therefore it is necessary to weed out these herbs additionally or destroy them when hilling potatoes.
There is an interesting trick, which experienced gardeners use: after harvesting from the site, sow the ground with rapeseed. In the spring, along with its shoots, the earth is dug up: it will serve as protection against wheatgrass and natural fertilizer. In any other cases, you can apply other methods of weed control: chemical or folk.