Nasal congestion is an unpleasant symptom that always accompanies viral diseases, allergies, advanced cases of sinusitis. Vasoconstrictor nasal drops are in these cases an indispensable part of therapy. Their role is to enable the patient to breathe freely while the treatment is being conducted. What are vasoconstrictor medications and can they conceal danger?
Principle of action of drugs
In narrow medical circles, vasoconstrictor nasal drops are called alpha adrenomimetics. The principle of their action is to stimulate alpha-adrenergic receptors, which usually occurs in parallel with the narrowing of blood vessels. When applied topically, this series of drugs can reduce the lumen of the blood vessels of the mucous membrane. If medications are used internally, alpha adrenergic mimetics can even provoke uterine contractions, relax the intestinal muscles, and expand the pupils.
The removal of edema by vasoconstrictor drops occurs due to a decrease in the lumen of the vessels, so that these agents do not carry any medicinal effect. They only for the time being eliminate discomfort. The action of drugs occurs within a few minutes and can last about 5 hours. It all depends on the composition of the drop and the manufacturer.
Thanks to alpha adrenomimetics, sputum gradually leaves the sinuses. Not only the vessels narrow, but the mucous membrane acquires its original appearance. The edema is removed, and the accumulated deposits in the nose get extra space to exit.
The range of vasoconstrictor drugs is enormous. What are the most effective sprays and drops?
Nasal drops vasoconstrictor: names
Pricing policies and components of drugs may vary significantly. Most often, doctors recommend the following drugs.
- Naphazoline. The medicine has a low price. Its effect lasts up to 6 hours. A side effect of these drops is irritation of the nasal mucosa. A strict contraindication to use is infancy. Naphazoline can adversely affect the work of the nervous system and cause severe conditions, the most terrible of which can be coma. Naphthyzinum, Sanorin (Czech Republic), Nafazolin-Ferein belong to the same series of drugs. There is a combination medicine Sanorin, in which is added eucalyptus oil. Thanks to the natural component, the effect of the spray on the mucous membrane is softened, but it can cause allergies.
- Xylometazoline. The most safe and effective drug, characterized by low cost. It is suitable for babies from birth, however, the concentration of the active substance should be 2 times less than the dosage for adults - 0.05%. There are a lot of analogs of this medicine among both domestic and foreign drugs: Galazolin (Poland), Otrivin (Switzerland), Xymelin and Tizin Xylo (Germany). There are 2 forms of release: spray and drops (the only difference is in ease of use). Sometimes in the pharmacy you can find drugs of this series with the addition of eucalyptus oil: it reduces inflammation, disinfects and additionally helps to eliminate edema.
- Oxymetazoline. This series of drugs is very similar to the previous one. The effect of a drop occurs after a quarter of an hour and lasts up to 8 hours. The advantage of the drug is that you can adjust its dosage for children of different ages:
- 0-1 year - 0.01%;
- 1-6 years - 0.25%;
- from 6 years old - 0.05%.
Among the most popular analogues are the German preparations Nazivin and Nazol Advance. They are also found with the addition of peppermint or eucalyptus oils.
- Tramazolin. The advantage of this tool is quick effect and long lasting action. After 5 minutes, the nose begins to breathe freely, and lung breathing persists for 10 hours. The drug does not irritate the mucous membrane, it can be prescribed for children from 6 years. So far only one analogue of domestic production is known - Lasolvan Reno. The cost of a drop is quite high, but for treatment, a minimum amount of them is required.
- Phenylephrine. For adults, this spray is less effective, but it is widely used in pediatric practice. It is not recommended to use the medicine for more than 3 days. The negative property of phenylephrine is a high degree of absorbability in the blood, especially in babies. Among the well-known analogues distinguish Nazol Baby and Nazol Kids.
There are various combinations based on the active ingredients of these drugs, for example:
- Vibrocil (Switzerland): contains phenylephrine in combination with antiallergic component;
- Nasik (Germany): xylometazoline is used as an active ingredient in combination with anti-inflammatory components;
- Sanorin-Analegin (Czech Republic): contains naphazoline and other ingredients that prevent allergies.
What drops can be during pregnancy?
Pregnancy is a special period when the range of drugs for treatment is significantly limited. With vasoconstrictor medications, you need to be especially careful, since in high concentrations they can cause uterine contractions. These drops belong to the category C, that is, they carry with them a real danger to pregnant women.
Animal studies have shown that alpha adrenomimetics can cross the placental barrier. It also remains an open question how these medicines affect breast milk. How to be pregnant? Is it possible to ease breathing during the period of illness?
The only available drug in the absence of allergy remains Pinosol. It does not have a vasoconstrictor effect, but it relieves the nasal passage well. The drug is based on natural ingredients: eucalyptus, pine and mint oils, vitamin E and thymol. Pinosol perfectly relieves swelling and has an anti-inflammatory effect.
Baby vasoconstrictor nose drops: which is better?
Applying vasoconstrictor drops for children, you need to be very careful. Many drugs prescribed for adults may be suitable for babies, but using them without a doctor's prescription is dangerous to the health of the child.
Among the means of short action (up to 4 hours) there are:
- Naphthyzinum (naphazoline 0.05%);
- Sanorin (naphazolin 0.05%);
- Vibrocil (phenylephrine);
- Nazol baby (phenylephrine);
- Polydex (phenylephrine).
Medium-acting drugs give an effect of no more than 8 hours:
- Otrivin (xylometazoline);
- Tizin (Tramazolin);
- Adrianol (tramazolin, phenylephrine).
Popular long-lasting drops (about 10 hours) are:
- Afrin (Oxymetazoline);
- Fazin (oxymetazoline);
- Nazivin (oxymetazoline).
Almost all preparations for children have side effects, the most common of which is allergy. Parents need not only to strictly follow the rules of administration and dosage, but also to hide the preparations from babies well. If a child accidentally drinks a vasoconstrictor, an emergency resuscitation will be necessary.
How to apply to not harm?
Topical application of vasoconstrictor drugs is almost safe. They are not absorbed into the blood, and even the latest research methods can not detect the active substances in the human body. And yet it is impossible to drip them into the nose uncontrollably. What is the danger?
Vasoconstrictor drops are addictive. Already after 5-7 instillations, the effect of the drug becomes less, and the patient has to use the spray more and more often. But the most terrible is the fact that without alpha-adrenomimetics a person is no longer able to breathe normally. He develops medical rhinitis, which in severe cases ends with surgery. In this regard, the use of drugs is necessary only on prescription.
Indications for the use of these drugs are:
- rhinitis, including allergic;
- inflammation of the middle ear;
- preparing the patient for surgery.
It is not recommended to use these drugs to people:
- with hypertension;
- with glaucoma;
- with atherosclerosis;
- with tachycardia.
Infrequent treatment of vasoconstrictor drops is safe and helps facilitate breathing. However, their regular use threatens addiction and chronic rhinitis. So, if there is an opportunity to remove swelling of the mucous in a different way (for example, by washing), it is best to refuse them.