One of the indicators that is checked using a biochemical blood test is blood urea. The rate in women depends on age and some other factors. Any deviations from the standard indicators should force the patient to pay attention to their health and undergo treatment. Under which diseases does urea grow or fall?
What is this indicator for?
Urea is the end product of protein breakdown, which is produced by the liver as a result of the neutralization of ammonia. The blood is cleared from it by passing through the kidneys. If these organs work well, then the content of such a component in the blood remains at the minimum acceptable physiological level. Thus, the number of urea in the blood can determine the presence of problems with the kidneys and liver. Most often, an increase in such a component is a direct proof that it is necessary to treat the kidneys.
To check its content, a biochemical blood test is done. It is taken strictly on an empty stomach from the cubital vein. It should be handed over in the morning, because in the afternoon the numbers will be higher. This diagnosis is carried out in the presence of special indications:
- to test liver and kidney function;
- with renal and hepatic insufficiency;
- with ischemia;
- diseases of the digestive tract, which reduces the absorption of food components.
How much is it in a healthy person?
So, if you need to find out the state of the liver, kidneys and muscular system, then urea is checked in the blood. The norm in women is as follows:
- girls under 14 years old - from 1.8 to 6.6 mmol / l;
- women under 60 years of age - from 2.3 to 6.6 mmol / l;
- ladies who crossed the threshold of the 60th anniversary - from 2.8 to 7.5 mmol / l.
In pregnancy, this blood test is also assigned to understand how the excretory system of the kidneys works. Urea is normal in women carrying a child, depending on the period:
- in 1 and 2 trimester - from 2.5 to 7.1 mmol / l;
- in the 3rd trimester - from 2.5 to 6.3 mmol / l.
Urea formation depends on nutrition, and its elimination depends on the work of the kidneys.
Harmless reasons for raising and lowering
If the analysis showed high values of urea, you should not immediately sound the alarm. Physiological factors could "help" this: too much physical exertion, due to which the processing of protein is accelerated; too active intake of protein foods; sports, medical or meat diet with a small amount of chlorine ions. Increase is capable of provoking and prolonged starvation.
The increase in the rate leads to the use of medicines: chloramphenicol, Lasix, Gentamicin, Tetracycline, Furosemide, Sulfanilamide, Neugramon, corticosteroids, Isobarin, Dopegita, anabolic steroids. Concentration also increases with a lack of salt in the diet.
Therefore, if a doctor gives a woman a biochemical analysis direction, she should warn him about what kind of lifestyle she leads, if she is on a diet, what foods prevail in her menu and if she takes any of the above-mentioned drugs.
For those who refuse to use animal products, the opposite is true: the level of urea does not reach the minimum allowable level.
The disadvantage of this substance - a condition characteristic of pregnant women. This is explained by the increased load on the kidneys, the acceleration of blood flow to them and the fact that a significant part of the amino acids goes to feed the fetus.
Numbers above the norm: where is the problem hiding?
Urea in a biochemical blood test can be increased not only because of specific nutrition or other non-dangerous causes. Often, deviations from the norm are found in such pathologies:
- intestinal obstruction;
- cardiac, hepatic and renal failure (the level of urea can in such cases reach extremely high values - about 140 mmol per liter);
- pylo- and glomerulonephritis;
- malignant arterial hypertension;
- tuberculosis and polycystic kidney disease;
- delayed urine output due to obstruction in the urinary tract - neoplasms, stones;
- bleeding in the digestive organs;
- endocrine disruption;
- extensive burns;
- traumatic, cardiac, septic shock.
Excessive content doctors classify as follows:
- 16-20 mmol / l - failure of moderate renal activity;
- up to 35 mmol / l - severe violation;
- over 50 mol / l - very heavy. There is a danger of the worst case scenario of the disease (this is typical for acute renal failure).
Not only diseases but also some conditions can lead to an increase in urea. This happens when the body intensively loses water (with excessive sweating, vomiting, indigestion), and also if the fever lasts longer than two weeks. The same happens in case of poisoning with mercury, phenol or chloroform (it leads to the development of nephrosclerosis). The increase in the level is noted in the postoperative period.
Stably high urea in the blood can lead to the development of gout or kidney failure. In case of macherovi, when harmful toxins (ammonia, creatine, uric acid) accumulate in the body and the concentration of urea increases sharply, death is possible.
Urea itself is not a toxic substance, but it is distinguished by its ability to penetrate cell membranes, release water, and maintain strong hydrostatic pressure. All this leads to the fact that the cells "swell" and can not function properly.
What is the reason for low concentration?
Immediately it should be said that the urea is lowered in the blood is extremely rare. But, if the survey showed exactly this result, it may indicate the presence of:
- hepatitis A;
- hepatic coma;
- thyroid abnormalities;
- hepatodystrophy (a complication of this disease is liver necrosis);
- intestinal malabsorption (this breaks down the absorption of amino acids);
- acromegaly (increased growth of some parts of the body due to an excessive amount of growth hormone);
- arsenic or phosphorus poisoning.
In addition, the content of the substance falls after dialysis - a special procedure for blood purification, which is carried out for patients suffering from renal failure. The level of this element is reduced on the background of chronic pancreatitis and after surgery.
The reasons for the increase (decrease) of urea can be very different. And most often such a deviation is associated with diseases, including serious ones. To reduce the concentration of urea, if this resulted in chronic kidney disease, it is quite difficult. For this, special medical measures are necessary: taking diuretics, detoxification, infusion therapy. If the reason is more banal and not related to disease, then it is enough to go on a diet with a reduced content of protein foods.