Upper and lower blood pressure. hypotension - what is it


Changes in blood pressure in the body can have a significant impact on human well-being and health. Far from all represent what conditions such as hypertension or arterial hypotension can threaten. What is blood pressure and why should it be maintained normal?

Blood pressure: upper and lower

Blood pressure: upper and lower

Blood pressure is the blood pressure that exists in the main arteries of the body. Doctors distinguish 2 types of blood pressure:

  • systolic, or upper (shows with what force the heart is able to push blood into the arteries);
  • diastolic, or lower (shows blood pressure at the moment when the heart relaxes).

The unit for measuring blood pressure is a millimeter of mercury (abbreviated as mm Hg). Normal systolic pressure is 120 mm Hg. Art., diastolic - 80 mm Hg. Art. These are the average indicators that medicine focuses on. However, for each person, the rate may vary depending on heredity, type of activity and general condition of the body.

Changes in blood pressure should be carefully monitored. Increase for every 10 mm Hg. Art. threatens the development of heart disease, vascular damage and impaired blood circulation in the brain.

Hypotension: what is it?

Hypotension is the general decrease in blood pressure indicators by 20%. The upper pressure drops to 90 mm Hg. Art., and the bottom - up to 60 mm Hg. Art. However, reduced tonometer readings are not the only symptoms of the disease. May also be noted:

  • pulling or throbbing pains in the head;
  • regular dizziness, lethargy, and weakness;
  • pale skin;
  • hands and feet constantly cold;
  • depression, apathy;
  • hypersensitivity to weather changes;
  • frequent heartbeat with increased physical exertion;
  • fainting;
  • hyperhidrosis.

There are several types of hypotension:

  • acute (accompanies significant blood loss, arterial damage, heart attacks, arrhythmia);
  • chronic (it appears regularly and develops as a hereditary disease or result of a lifestyle);
  • primary (independent disease);
  • secondary (acts as a complication of other diseases).

Causes of hypertension can be:

  • adaptation of the organism to unusual climate conditions;
  • sharp blood loss with injuries and burns;
  • shock state, as a result of which muscle tone decreases;
  • stress, lack of sleep, excessive emotional and physical exertion, irrational correlation of work and rest, exhausting organism;
  • orthostatic hypotension - decrease in pressure after a long stay in one position;
  • thyroid diseases, head and vertebra injuries, adrenal gland diseases, infections, stomach ulcers.

Hypotension Treatment Methods

Hypotension Treatment Methods

Among the non-drug treatments for hypotension are the following:

  • maintaining a healthy lifestyle (morning exercises, full sleep at least 9 hours, douche in the morning, moderate exercise, walking);
  • regular massage of the collar, hands and feet;
  • taking diuretic drugs or herbal infusions;
  • full balanced nutrition;
  • physiotherapy;
  • the optimal ratio of time allotted for work and rest;
  • establishing the causes of regular stress and their maximum elimination.

Patients with hypotension are not recommended to take hot baths and stay in the sun for a long time.

You can regularly drink tinctures of ginseng, Eleutherococcus, Chinese Schizandra. The main property of these plants is stimulation of the central nervous system, which leads to an increase in pressure.

Among the drugs for the treatment of hypotension are traditionally prescribed:

  • piracetam;
  • gamma-aminobutyric acid;
  • aminophenyl butyric acid;
  • pyritinol;
  • Cerebrolysin;
  • Bellataminal, Bellaspon;
  • midodrin;
  • Vincamine;
  • tranquilizers.

These drugs actively influence the state of the blood flow and the central nervous system; therefore, using them without a doctor's prescription is absolutely not recommended.

Hypertension and its types

Hypertension is called the excess of normal blood pressure indicators of 20 mm or more. Art. In this case, in children, the pressure of 70/50 mm Hg can be considered the norm. Art., and in older people - more than 120/80 mm Hg. Art. In hypertension, symptoms appear as follows:

  • headaches in the back of the head;
  • swelling of limbs;
  • the appearance of "black dots" before the eyes;
  • feeling of high temperature;
  • redness of the eyes and skin of the face;
  • anxiety;
  • slight nausea.

There are hypertension 1 and 2 degrees.

Hypertension grade 1 is the initial stage of the disease. The pressure rises for a short time and does not pose a threat to the body. At this time, the patients recorded a slight deterioration in health. The danger lies in the fact that in a sluggish form the disease can develop over a decade.

With arterial hypertension grade 2 increases the risk of hypertensive crisis. The patient feels a significant deterioration, possible fainting. Hypertension grade 2 is very dangerous for humans, because it can lead to disruption of the heart, brain, kidneys. At this stage, the development of hypertension is difficult to predict, since pressure surges can be abrupt and unexpected. If the tonometer shows an upper pressure of 160 mm Hg. Art. and above, urgent hospitalization is required.

The causes of hypertension can be:

  • frequent stress;
  • hormonal disorders;
  • excessive salt intake;
  • diseases of the kidneys, adrenal glands;
  • side effects of medications taken;
  • pregnancy;
  • arterial thrombosis;
  • violations of the heart, cerebral vessels.

Hypertension treatment

Non-drug therapy for hypertension will be in such recommendations.

Non-drug therapy for hypertension will consist in the following recommendations:

  • normalize food and daily routine;
  • control your weight (if necessary, go on a diet for weight loss);
  • increase physical activity;
  • reduce the amount of salt consumed;
  • drink diuretics.

Drugs that are most often used for hypertension:

  • beta-blockers (reduce pressure by affecting the nervous system);
  • blocking calcium channels (blocking calcium intake, which reduces the frequency of muscle contractions);
  • angiotensin II blocking receptors (vasoconstrictor agents);
  • alpha and beta blockers (affect the nervous system).

Many patients try to treat hypertension (as well as hypotension) independently, ignore the disturbing symptoms and go to the hospital only in critical cases. Do not carelessly treat your health. Changes in blood pressure can only be the result of hidden dangerous diseases that can be detected only after a detailed examination.