Typhoid fever is a particularly contagious disease. It is transmitted through water and food, which contain the pathogen. Even a recovered person can be a carrier of bacteria causing a terrible disease for several years. With the wrong treatment, the disease can even be fatal.
How does the disease manifest itself?
The symptom of the disease is such that in the first week of the development of the disease there are severe headaches, cough, high fever, chills, loss of appetite, fatigue, weakness, frequent constipation and abdominal pain.
The next period of the disease (2-3 weeks) - high fever, diarrhea, weakness, weight loss, increase in size of the stomach, rash appears on the chest and abdomen.
In young children, the disease begins acutely. The symptoms of intoxication and fever are growing rapidly. Sometimes vomiting, convulsions, disturbed consciousness. Typical tachycardia. Often there are complications associated with the accession of a secondary infection (pneumonia, stomatitis, etc.).
To determine typhoid fever, a doctor prescribes tests for blood, feces and urine.
To determine the causative agent of typhoid fever in the body, analyze the bacterial culture. This test must be done before the start of antibiotics, as these drugs can distort the visible picture of the disease. For the diagnosis of typhoid and necessary serological reactions. But they do not always give clear results, since the disease is divided into several types, which complicates its definition. An analysis of this kind is rather aimed at assessing the changes that have occurred in the body under the influence of typhoid fever.
Blood for typhoid fever: analysis specificity
Currently, immunological blood tests to determine typhoid fever are especially common. Such analyzes are based on the identification of antigens and antibodies to the causative agent of the disease. This type of diagnosis includes radioimmunoassay, the reaction of immunoelectrophoresis, enzyme immunoassay, and the reaction of coagglutination.
- Radioimmune analysis (RIA) is based on the interaction of an antigen with an antibody, one of which is a reagent. In the test material, both the antigen and antibodies and their concentration are determined.
- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a laboratory immunological method for the qualitative or quantitative determination of various compounds, viruses, macromolecules. It is based on the specific antigen-antibody reaction.
Vaccination against typhoid fever: is it worth doing?
According to WHO, every year more than half a million people die from typhoid fever in the world. People most often get sick at the age of 5 from 19 years old, therefore vaccinations against typhoid fever should be done in endemic zones (where drinking water is not very high quality and there is a shortage of it).
Recently, an increase in the boundaries of the incidence of typhoid fever has been noted. This is due to the migration of the population, the growth of trade relations, the widespread distribution of lottery trade, including foodstuffs. Seasonal distribution of morbidity is characterized by rises in the autumn-summer period.
Whole-cell vaccine against typhoid fever is used in schoolchildren and adults. Its effectiveness is from 51 to 88%. The effectiveness of polysaccharide vaccines is 70%, they develop resistance to the causative agent of the disease after about 1-2 weeks, which persists for 2 years. There is a conjugated vaccine (with P. aeruginosa exotoxin). It is effective in 90% of children from 2 to 5 years.
Vaccination against typhoid fever is carried out according to the testimony of epidemiologists from the age of 3 to 7 years (depending on the type of vaccines) and people from risk groups. Be sure to vaccinate tourists traveling to Africa and Asia.
There are a wide range of contraindications to the use of alcoholic whole-cell vaccine. It is not administered with sensitivity to the components of the vaccine, pregnancy, as well as during the acute course of the disease.
Symptoms of typhoid fever is important not to confuse with the symptoms of ARVI. Therefore, do not start the disease, take tests, if you have it was delayed, having visited a doctor before. Pay special attention to this, since recently this disease has become very common in our country.