Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, the bones of the face, and the skull caused by viruses or bacteria. Most often, the disease is an acute complication of nasopharyngitis or allergic rhinitis. For the treatment of sinusitis in adults, drugs are prescribed based on the cause and severity of symptoms.
What are sinuses? These are the cavities of the sinuses in the bones of the face and skull, which are lined with mucous membrane. The sinuses are arranged in pairs - symmetrically on both sides of the face. The following sinuses are distinguished:
- sinus front on the forehead;
- maxillary over the cheekbone;
- sphenoid under eyes;
- lattice between eyes.
All sinuses are associated with the nasal cavity. From birth, a person has only the ethmoid and maxillary sinuses. The rest develop gradually to puberty.
The mucous membrane lining the sinuses produces mucus, which is removed through the nasal cavity. When the communication ports in the nasal passages become clogged, mucus accumulates in the sinuses. These accumulations cause the characteristic painful pressure of sinusitis.
Some bacteria are naturally found in the sinuses. With the weakening of immunity, their number increases significantly, increases the accumulation of mucus, the stagnation of which causes an increase in temperature and leads to the formation of pus. This is how acute sinusitis or rhinosinusitis develops. When mucus removal is normal, sinusitis usually heals spontaneously within a few weeks.
Symptoms of the disease in adults
In adults, sinusitis most often causes pain in the face with a characteristic feeling of pressure, especially when bending forward or lowering the head. The pain is often stronger on one side of the face, where the affected sinus is located. Pain sensations are aggravated by coughing, movements, and tend to increase at the end of the day and at night.
Pain is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- nasal congestion;
- loss of smell;
- discharge of pus and mucus through the nose, and often one nostril is more affected by the disease than the other;
In addition, it happens that in acute sinusitis, fever, headache, cough, bad breath, difficulty swallowing and photophobia appear.
How is the disease manifested in children?
Children also suffer from sinusitis. At the age of three years, they may develop an infection of the ethmoid sinuses with a high temperature — above 39 ° C, with mucous secretions and swelling of the eyelids. Children older than three years are most likely to suffer from maxillary sinusitis. He is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- nasal congestion;
- pain in the face;
- purulent nasal discharge;
- sometimes puffiness around the eyes.
After ten years, children may also suffer from sinusitis of the frontal sinuses, whose symptoms are similar to those found in adults.
Find out the causes of sinusitis
The causes of sinusitis are many. All of them contribute to obstruction of mucus outlet to the nose, usually due to inflammation, which causes swelling, as well as the narrowing of their diameter partially or completely. There are several types of sinusitis.
Sinusitis infectious nature
Nasopharyngitis and catarrhal diseases are the most common cause of sinusitis. The virus responsible for these infections of the respiratory tract causes inflammation in the nasal mucosa, sinuses and throat. As a rule, these viral sinusitis recover spontaneously. But in 2% of adults suffering from nasopharyngitis, and in 10% of children, a viral infection causes bacteria or fungi to grow in the sinuses.
In special cases, for example, in cystic fibrosis, sinusitis occurs due to poor drainage of mucus from the sinuses. Dental problems, such as abscesses, can also cause inflammation in the sinuses of the upper jaw on the part of the patient's tooth.
Sometimes the removal of mucus from the sinuses is blocked due to a mechanical obstruction, such as a distortion of the nasal septum, natural or trauma, the presence of a foreign body, especially in young children, or the formation of polyps.
In people who suffer from allergic rhinitis or asthma, inflammation associated with allergies blocks the removal of mucus and causes sinusitis. With frequent acute allergic inflammation of the sinuses without proper treatment, sinusitis turns into a chronic stage.
Drug treatment of the acute form of the disease
Acute sinusitis with symptoms of the virus does not require separate treatment and takes place within a few days of treatment with analgesics and antipyretic drugs in combination with regular nasal washings. At the first sign of a cold, you should immediately begin rinsing the nose with a physiological or nasal solution based on seawater.
Very sensitive to colds people, including children, the doctor may prescribe a preventive treatment with vitamin A, which begins three months before the onset of cold weather. To relieve the symptoms of acute sinusitis in adults and to treat the disease, the doctor usually prescribes the same drugs used for colds and nasopharyngitis.
If the doctor suspects a maxillary sinusitis of a bacterial nature, antibiotic treatment is prescribed. In other cases, antibiotics are prescribed only for special indications:
- with allergies, asthma, diabetes;
- in autoimmune diseases;
- To old people;
- with sinusitis of the frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid sinus;
- in the presence of purulent accumulations in the sinuses.
Treatment of the symptoms of acute sinusitis in children has certain features. A child under 6 cannot have sinusitis, because the sinuses are not fully developed. Most often in children nasopharyngitis occurs, for the treatment of which is enough blowing out mucus and washing the nose.
In the case of an edema of the eyelids, very noticeable in the corner of the eye and accompanied by a temperature of 39 ° C, a secondary infection of the ethmoid sinus may be caused, therefore emergency hospitalization is necessary.
It should be remembered that sinusitis is dangerous for its complications. In severe cases, an infection of the sinuses can spread to the bones of the skull, the eyes, the meninges, or the brain itself. But timely treatment avoids such consequences. Be healthy!