Analyzes of thyroid hormones can determine the concentration of these compounds in human blood. Any deviations from the norm will indicate pathological changes in the thyroid. Dysfunction of this organ, in turn, leads to an imbalance of energy metabolism in the body. When is the study indicated?
Thyroid hormone tests are recommended to be tested if the following symptoms are present:
- suspected increased or decreased secretion;
- insufficient development of the reproductive system;
- mental retardation;
- problems with the heart and blood vessels;
- problems with menstruation in women;
- connective tissue lesions (dermatitis, eczema, lupus).
If the study determines a deviation from the norm, this means that there are violations in the work of the thyroid gland. Depending on the level of secretion, there are two types of pathology:
- hyperthyroidism (excessive hormone production) - characterized by excessive sweating, palpitations, tremors, etc .;
- hypothyroidism (lack of connections) - the main symptoms are slow speech, rare pulse, increased body weight, etc.
People who have found one of these disorders are prescribed a course of drugs to stabilize the level of hormones in the blood. Periodically, the study is repeated to track the stages of recovery.
Types of analyzes
If the first symptoms of thyroid dysfunction are detected, anyone can contact the laboratory to confirm the diagnosis. But for this you need to know what tests are done on thyroid hormones. The most frequently tested are the following compounds:
- T3 - is responsible for oxygen metabolism in tissues;
- T4 - affects the protein metabolism in the body (with an excessive level of this hormone, the absorption of oxygen and energy metabolism is accelerated);
- TSH - produced by the pituitary gland, stimulates the production of T3 and T4;
- antibodies to thyroglobulin - a protein preceding T3 and T4;
- antibodies to thyroid peroxidase - thyroid enzyme.
As a rule, research is carried out to determine several indicators at once, which allows for a more accurate picture of the disease.
If you need to be tested for thyroid hormones, you should ask how to prepare for them. For this, doctors recommend the following.
- At least for a month to stop taking drugs containing hormonal compounds, including contraceptives.
- If the patient has taken iodine-based medications, this may affect the outcome. In the case when a complete rejection of iodine-containing therapy is impossible for a long period, you need to stop taking medication for at least a couple of days.
- For 2-3 days to eliminate physical activity. It is also necessary to strictly observe the regime, because the production of hormones depends on the time of day.
- The analysis must be taken in the morning on an empty stomach. Half an hour before the manipulation does not expose the body to physical and emotional stress.
If the patient has no idea how to properly test for thyroid hormones, the result of the study may be distorted due to non-compliance with the conditions of preparation for it.
If you have received a response from the laboratory, you will probably be interested in deciphering blood tests for thyroid hormones before meeting with the doctor. Indicators are compared with the norm:-
- T3 free - from 2 pmol / l to 5 pmol / l;
- T3 total - from 1 nmol / l to 3 nmol / l;
- T4 free - from 9 pmol / l to 22 pmol / l;
- T4 total - from 53 nmol / l to 155 nmol / l;
- TTG - from 0.3 mU / l to 4 mU / l;
- antibodies to thyroglobulin - from 0 U / ml to 19 U / ml;
- antibodies to thyroid peroxidase - less than 6 U / ml;
- calcitonin - from 6 to 28 nmol / l.
Above are the average values. Depending on a person’s age group, the rate of blood tests for thyroid hormones can vary:
- for people under 50, a total T3 of up to 3.2 nmol / l is not considered a pathology, while for a person over 50 this is a reason to contact an endocrinologist;
- in children under 5, the rate of total T4 can reach 200 nmol / l, and for adolescents and adults this value is considered an anomaly;
- the maximum blood level of free T4 rises after 14 years from 17 to 22 nmol / l;
- in newborns, the rate of TSH can reach 17 mU / l.
In addition, the reference (normal) values may differ depending on the method of research chosen by the laboratory. In this regard, in the form of answers, a scale is indicated for decoding the result.
In case of deviations, the following diseases can be diagnosed:
- hypothyroidism - T3 and T4 lowered, and TSH high;
- hyperthyroidism - T3 and T4 increased, and TSH low;
- if antibodies to thyroglobulin are detected, this means that there are serious disorders in thyroid function;
- If antibodies to thyroid peroxidase are detected, this may indicate problems with the immune system.
The study of the hormonal sphere of the body is an important part of the diagnosis of thyroid disease. With timely detection of violations, serious consequences and even surgery can be avoided. To confirm the diagnosis, the endocrinologist may recommend an ultrasound scan of the thyroid gland.
With a shortage of T3 and T4, hormonal preparations (Thyrodin, Thyroxine, Novotiral) and drugs containing iodine, such as Iodomarin, are prescribed. The dosage of the drug must be determined by the doctor, since the excess trace element can also cause harm to the body. A person needs from 100 to 200 micrograms of iodine per day.
In parallel, a diet is appointed with the inclusion in the diet of foods rich in iodine-containing compounds:
- sea kale;
For a healthy person, this measure is an excellent prevention of gland diseases in the future.
Today, tests for thyroid hormones are conducted in high-tech laboratories, where errors are minimized. However, the patient himself must take care of the result and properly prepare for the study. Only in this case, the prescribed treatment will be adequate and effective.