White blood cells are white blood cells, which are also cells of the immune system. If an infection gets into the body or inflammation begins, the number of leukocytes increases to counteract the health hazard that has arisen, so the analysis of their level in the blood is sufficiently informative. What is the rate of leukocytes in the blood?
White blood cells in short
Leukocytes (WBC) - one of the blood cells. They are the second largest family of blood cells along with red blood cells or red bodies. Many studies have made it possible to better understand their role in the fight against infectious agents and cancer cells of autoimmune diseases.
White blood cells play a role in the body's immune defense. When their number drops excessively, we become very vulnerable to infectious agents. And if their number increases, it may mean that the body is trying to protect against infection. Too low levels of white cells can also mean other problems, which we will discuss below.
The composition of white cells is not uniform. There are several types of white blood cells, and each of them has specific functions. Basically, these functions are a complex immune response using various biochemical and cellular mechanisms.
Laboratory blood analysis helps to determine the level of leukocyte concentration. In the normal state, it ranges from 3,000 to 10,000 / mm³ of blood with slight variations depending on the patient's gender, his age and the capabilities of the analytical laboratory.
The composition of the so-called leukocyte formula, in addition to leukocytes, includes the following elements:
- Neutrophils (NE) are the largest group of leukocytes. Among neutrophils granulocytes are distinguished - non-specific white cells, as well as phagocytes, which are able to absorb and digest foreign bodies in the body. The normal number of neutrophils is 1800-7000 / mm³ of blood or 50-70% of all leukocytes.
- Eosinophils (EO) play a role in eliminating parasites from the body. In a healthy person, the number of eosinophils should not exceed 500 / mm³ of blood or 4-5% of leukocytes.
- Basophils (BA) are the smallest white blood cells. They are involved in reactions with inflammation and allergies. Their number rarely exceeds 100 / mm³, which is less than 2%.
- Lymphocytes (LYM) play an important role in the immune system and are involved in the production of antibodies. Among them are two main types: B-lymphocytes, which secrete antibodies, immunoglobulins, and T-lymphocytes, which play the role of killer cells. Their normal concentration varies from 1000 to 4000 / mm³, which is 30%.
- Monocytes (MON) are white bodies that develop in macrophages or dendritic cells. These are the largest cells circulating in the blood. Their number increases with such infections as mononucleosis, some parasites and leukemia. In a healthy person, the number of monocytes ranges from 160 to 1000 / mm³ or 2-6%.
Consider the normal content of white cells in the blood, depending on gender and age. So, the rate of leukocytes in the blood of women:
- WBC = 3200-10000 / mm³;
- NE = 1900-6120 / mm³;
- EO = 160-410 / mm³;
- BA = 64-100 / mm³;
- LYM = 1000-3060 / mm³;
- MON = 160-600 / mm³.
In women, the white cell concentration may vary depending on the hormonal levels, for example, during the menstrual cycle. The rate of leukocytes in the blood during pregnancy is slightly higher than normal:
- WBC = 4000-15000 / mm³;
- NE = 2400-9000 / mm³;
- EO = 160-600 / mm³;
- BA = 80-150 / mm³;
- LYM = 1200-4500 / mm³;
- MON = 200-1000 / mm³.
The rate of leukocytes in the blood of men:
- WBC = 4000-9000 / mm³;
- NE = 2400-5500 / mm³;
- EO = 160-500 / mm³;
- BA = 80-100 / mm³;
- LYM = 1200-3000 / mm³;
- MON = 200-600 / mm³.
The rate of leukocytes in the blood of children is significantly different in a large way from those in adults. Moreover, the concentration of white cells in the blood of the child's body is maintained at the maximum level from birth to six months, gradually changing in the direction of decrease. Normalization comes to the age of fifteen.
9400-32200 / mm³
9200-13800 / mm³
1 to 4 years old
6000-17500 / mm³
4 to 12 years old
6100-11400 / mm³
From 13 to 15 years
5500-10000 / mm³
Possible deviations from the norm: causes
As noted above, usually when a health hazard appears, an immune response occurs in the body, which results in an increase in the number of leukocytes in the blood. However, there are pathologies in which leukocytes become low.
Leukocytes above normal
If the blood test showed a too high level of leukocytes - more than 10,000 cells / mm³, this means that leukocytosis is developing. A high white blood cell count may include one or more types of white cells. A blood test can also detect abnormal white blood cells. The predominance of certain types of leukocytes, as a rule, determines the diagnosis and may correspond to various diseases.
Of great importance in this case is the clinical examination by a doctor. Fever, cough, shortness of breath, weakness, pain are important symptoms that the doctor will summarize with possible additional research results for a definitive diagnosis.
The main causes of high leukocytes are:
- infectious diseases;
- inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis;
- myocardial infarction, renal failure;
- cancer or leukemia;
- viral infections;
- an increase in B or T lymphocytes can be observed in lymphoma;
- eosinophils, in turn, increase in the case of allergies and with some parasitic invasions;
- high monocytes are found in brucellosis, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, autoimmune diseases, oncology and other pathologies.
Low white blood cells
When leukocytes are low, it is about leukopenia. If their level is too low, different reasons may be considered. They will be determined by the level of different types of white and other blood cells. It is also important clinical examination of the patient for an enlarged spleen, enlargement of the lymph nodes, the presence of fever. From additional studies, a myelogram may be prescribed to diagnose the bone marrow.
The main causes of low leukocytes:
- the effects of drugs - antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, barbiturates, corticosteroids;
- therapeutic procedures, such as chemotherapy;
- bacterial infections, such as typhoid fever or parasitic, malaria;
- immunodeficiency virus;
- hematological pathologies such as fibrosis and bone marrow suppression, lymphoma, acute leukemia.
This article is informative. Do not try to establish the diagnosis on your own, let alone take measures for treatment. The interpretation of the results of blood tests should be carried out by a qualified specialist, followed by the adoption of adequate measures.