The normal functioning of the human body is ensured by the supply of essential nutrients and oxygen and the removal of toxins from the tissues. An important role in these processes is played by the lymphatic system, the main components of which are lymph nodes. Consider the location of the lymph nodes in the neck and find out what function they perform.
Lymph nodes in the neck: layout
The cardiovascular system is closely related to the lymphatic. They complement each other. The lymphatic system is designed so that the movement of lymph in the vessels is directed in the opposite direction from the action of gravity. That is why it is moving much slower compared with the speed of blood in the blood vessels.
Due to the lymphatic system, a stable balance of fluid in the tissues of our body and its cleaning is maintained. Proteins and tissue fluid are transported through lymph flows and subclavian veins into our blood.
The composition of the lymphatic system includes:
- lymphatic capillaries, vessels, nodes;
- thymus gland (thymus gland);
- right lymphatic flow, which flows into the right subclavian vein;
- Thoracic flow into the left subclavian vein;
- Lymph is a liquid substance moving in the lymphatic system.
Each component of this system performs its function.
Lymph nodes are formations of connective tissue, shaped like a bean. The size of this formation ranges from 1.5 to 5 cm and more. Structurally, the lymph node consists of two zones. Immediately below the surface layer is the cortex. The inner space is a substance that is called cerebral. Inside the knot there is a labyrinth, the partitions of which are called lymphatic sinuses.
Between them, flows of lymph flow, and here the alien cells that are brought by it from the vessels are destroyed. Flowing through the knot, the lymph is cleansed and saturated with cells of antibodies and lymphocytes, which are the vanguard of the fight against infection.
Increased lymph nodes warn of the occurrence of various diseases. The main places of their location:
- neck area.
In the absence of a person's abnormalities in the health of the lymph nodes invisible under the skin, but the resulting infections can cause their increase.
Located in the neck lymph nodes prevent the development of tumors and inflammations in the neck and head. They can be located both under the skin and deep in the tissues, and, therefore, during palpation, you can not feel their changing size. Lymph nodes have a soft texture and a whitish-pink color. In young people and middle-aged people, the nodes resemble beans, while in the elderly they have a ribbon-like shape.
According to human anatomy, the lymph nodes in the cervical region are concentrated in front, on the sides and on the back, have a superficial or deep location.
To the deep-seated are the nodes located on the back side of the pharyngeal wall, in the supraclavicular cavity and near the superior vena cava, through which blood flows from the neck and head. An increase in these lymph nodes is diagnosed only with such examinations as radiography and MRI.
To the group of superficial lymph nodes include:
- Submental - clear the liquid from the lower lip, tongue and mouth;
- occipital - clean the soft tissue fluid of the parietal, occipital, and temporal region;
- cervical - clean the fluid of the tissues under the ear and ears;
- parotid - clean liquid soft tissues and skin of the temple and ear;
- submandibular - clean the fluid of the tissues of the pharynx, anterior side of the neck, and also the tonsils.
Knowing the anatomical location of the lymph nodes in the neck behind and in front, you can easily identify the symptoms of their increase.
Why are the lymph nodes inflamed?
The reason for the inflammation of the lymph nodes in the cervical region in most cases are colds or viral infections that affect the respiratory system. In addition, inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck can trigger:
- endocrine diseases;
- disruptions in the functioning of the body's immune defenses;
- upper respiratory tract diseases;
- oncological diseases;
- immunodeficiency virus;
- helminthiasis, fungal infections, viral and bacterial invasions;
- caries, otitis;
- sexually transmitted diseases.
If you notice inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck at the back, this may indicate such diseases as:
- rheumatoid arthritis.
An enlarged lymph node is of short duration, but brings pain and a lot of inconvenience. Inflamed lymph nodes can be of different sizes: both small and large. The stronger the inflammation goes, the larger the size of the lymph nodes and they are more painful. Hardened lymph nodes can lead to malignant tumors.
Late intervention with lymphadenitis can lead to purulent infection of the whole body. This is due to the lightning speed of toxins and bacteria that have entered the bloodstream. The danger is inflammation in the lymph nodes of the cervical region due to the proximity of the brain to them. This can lead to meningitis.
Do not neglect medical care if the disease is accompanied by migraine, high body temperature, inflammation of the lymph nodes of the cervical region, or pain during swallowing. Be healthy!