The appearance of vomiting in a young child is far from uncommon, which can be explained by various factors. First, the baby has not yet fully formed systems and organs, and vomiting can be a reaction to food, in addition, it can be a symptom of various infections. In any case, this symptom in a child, regardless of the cause, requires consultation and emergency care by a doctor.
How to determine the cause of vomiting in a child?
Vomiting - sudden emptying of the stomach with the passage of its contents through the esophagus into the mouth or nose. It begins in the brain, there is an emetic center and it is from there that the teams are sent. Impulses from the intestines, stomach, liver, kidneys, vestibular apparatus, as well as from the higher nerve centers can excite this center. Often vomiting is preceded by nausea, increased breathing, increased production of saliva.
Causes of vomiting can be quite varied. And depending on them, an infectious disease, a surgical pathology, the effects of medicines, etc., it is characterized as single or multiple, abundant or scanty. Sometimes, by the nature of vomiting, by the frequency of its occurrence, it is possible to guess the reason.
In young children, it is important to be able to distinguish vomiting from spitting. Burping is effortless, i.e. the muscles of the abdomen and the diaphragm do not tense, and the reason is the overflow of the stomach with food and air.
According to statistics, the most common cause of vomiting are infectious processes, various kinds of intestinal infections, food poisoning. Less often, the catalyst becomes a surgical pathology. The cause of vomiting are various diseases of the nervous system, increased intracranial pressure, brain tumors, epileptic seizures, damage to the inner ear.
Children and adolescent girls can have very specific reasons that are caused by psychogenic factors. This group of diseases includes anorexia, bulimia, etc. In some cases, vomiting can be demonstrative in order to attract attention.
What if baby has vomiting?
In almost every case of vomiting in a child, especially a small one, it is necessary to provide immediate assistance. It is imperative to call an ambulance when the following symptoms appear:
- Vomiting with blood, the vomit mass is red or brown;
- With frequent vomiting, more than 4 times in 2 hours, it is also necessary to call an ambulance, since there is a high risk of dehydration in the child, which can threaten health and even life;
- Sometimes with vomiting in a baby, the temperature may rise significantly, the child himself becomes sluggish, in a semi-conscious state;
- Especially dangerous is vomiting, which is formed after a strong fall of the child or after a severe head injury.
Sometimes an ambulance has to wait for a long time, for these reasons, every mother should know the rules exactly how to provide first aid to children before the arrival of the doctors.
First of all, you need to keep calm and do not panic!
When vomiting can not leave the baby alone, in no case, the protective mechanisms of the child is not yet fully formed. Vomit can close the airways, which can lead to suffocation. When vomiting, the patient must lie on his side or must be kept on his hands also on his side.
After each episode of vomiting, the baby's mouth should be rinsed with boiled water, it is best to use a 20 cubic meter syringe and warm water. In case the clothes were soiled, then they need to be changed and washed soiled skin. The smell of vomiting can provoke a recurrent seizure.
How to stop vomiting?
Vomiting is a defense mechanism, so the body tries to get rid of toxins, viruses, i.e. from poisoning. For these reasons, after each episode it is necessary to give the baby alkaline water (mineral) in small quantities, just a couple of sips. Usually after its adoption, a second attack occurs.
If there is no alkaline water, you can cook it at home. In boiled water, dilute a small amount of salt and baking soda. Soda is designed to stimulate digestion and reduce the acidity of the stomach.
You can use adsorbents - activated carbon. But with repeated vomiting, there will be no effect on the pills, since they will be eliminated from the body even before they have time to act. Take activated carbon tablets at the rate of 1 tablet per 10 kg of body weight.
It is necessary to remember about folk remedies, so green tea has an antiemetic effect. If vomiting is frequent, then you can chew green tea leaves.
- To completely eliminate vomiting, it is necessary to remove its cause. It is important to prevent dehydration in the child and with repeated, abundant vomiting, it is necessary to carry out dehydration, i.e. unsolder
- The main goal of otpaivaniya is to maintain the level of fluid and electrolytes in the body. Various solutions can be used for this, in the practice of children, glucose-salt is most often used, since “Regidron”, “Citroglukosolan”, etc. You can also use weakly brewed tea, decoctions of vegetables, compotes, mineral water.
- Replenishment of the lost fluid is carried out in 2 stages - in the first 6 hours after the appearance of vomiting. This soldering is intended to eliminate water and electrolyte deficiency. The volume of fluid that the child should receive should be calculated by the doctor using a special formula. Stage 2 continues in the next 18 hours, its main goal is to support the needs of the child in fluid at the time of illness.
- Throughout, regardless of the stages, the rehydration solution is given to the child in fractional, small portions, literally several tsp. every 5 - 10 min. Otpaivat baby should be until the cessation of fluid loss.
Treatment can only be considered effective if vomiting is eliminated, symptoms of dehydration are reduced, and diuresis is restored.
Despite the fact that vomiting is a protective reaction of the body, its effects can be very negative for a child. For these reasons, you should not rely on yourself, you need to consult a specialist. Moreover, you should not refuse hospitalization, because in some cases, unsoldering the child does not produce results. In this case, there are direct indications for intravenous fluids that cannot be performed at home.