Blood test results may not always be clear, and sometimes it is not possible to consult a doctor. You must have an idea what the records in the medical report mean. This will determine how urgently you need to visit a doctor and receive treatment. One of the indicators of the analysis are basophils in the blood. If they are elevated in an adult, it is worth thinking about your health.
Basophils and their purpose
What are basophils in the blood test and what is their norm in the body? Basophils are blood cells, leukocytes, which belong to the group of granulocytes. The composition of cells includes the following substances:
- histamine and others.
Basophils are formed in the bone marrow and then enter the blood, and then they are introduced into the tissue. The size of each cell is about 10 microns. Basophils exist for 12 days. The main function of these cells is to respond to the onset of the inflammatory process. When basophils reach the source of inflammation, they die. In the absence of an inflammatory process, the spleen utilizes these cells.
Basophilic reaction usually occurs instantly if there is a risk of anaphylactic shock. If basophils bind to lymphocytes, then their participation in delayed reactions is possible. This may be a sluggish chronic inflammatory focus.
If basophils interact with other blood cells, such as monocytes or eosinophils, this indicates intensive work of the immune system.
Thanks to basophils, poisons are excreted from the bites of bees and snakes. The cells neutralize and then remove the poisons. This may cause pain in the affected area. The reaction can be especially fast if soft tissue is affected.
Basophils in the body is very small. Their normal percentage is 0.5-1%. Sometimes basophils in the blood are elevated in adults to the rate of 2-3%. These are also normal numbers, but if the percentage exceeds 5%, you should see a doctor.
Basophils are elevated in an adult: what does it say?
An increased number of basophils can be detected in the following situations:
- with increasing levels of the hormone estrogen at the beginning of the menstrual cycle;
- the use of hormonal drugs with estrogen and drugs that increase the level of basophils;
- after infectious diseases;
- after minor exposures due to medical examinations;
- in chronic blood diseases;
- in violation of the pancreas;
- in oncology;
- with hepatitis.
High rates of basophils in children can be observed during the first year of life. This is a normal situation that does not require treatment. Subsequently, the level of basophils falls and rises to the norm only after 10 years.
However, parents need to be careful, as an increase in the level of basophils in children can be a sign of an allergic reaction. Basophils help neutralize sensitizing substances. Also, a high content of cells of this variety is observed in cancer in the bone marrow or in case of poisoning.
If the level of basophils is regularly elevated, so-called basophilia occurs. The absolute concentration of cells is 0.065 * 109 / l and more. The reasons may be as follows:
- blood diseases in which uncontrolled cell division begins;
- endocrine system diseases;
- chronic gastrointestinal tract diseases (ulcers, Crohn's disease);
- toxic diseases (bites, botulism);
- hormonal drugs with estrogen;
- tumor processes in the bone marrow;
- if the spleen was removed as a result of the operation.
Basophilia can also develop in children. The cause of it becomes allergies, the formation of tumors, disruption of the internal organs.
How to reduce the level of basophils?
If basophilia has developed as a result of these diseases, you must first undergo treatment. With an increased level of cells in a healthy person, a number of measures can be taken to reduce:
- increase the amount of consumed vitamin B12, which is actively involved in the formation of blood cells. This substance is found in meat, eggs, liver, milk;
- increase consumption of foods with a large amount of iron (fish, seafood, liver);
- stop taking hormonal drugs.
Despite preventive measures, it is not necessary to ignore the increased level of basophils. This is just one of the symptoms of the incipient inflammatory process.
Decreased basophil level
There are situations when the level of basophils in an adult can be below the norm:
- infectious diseases;
- Cushing's disease;
A decrease in basophil level may occur due to an increase in progesterone in a woman. But if her health is normal, then the level of cells will be reduced slightly.
A regular condition in which there is a level of basophils below 0.01 * 109 / l is called basopenia. It may occur due to the following diseases and conditions:
- with the active work of the thyroid gland;
- in diseases of the adrenal glands;
- with pneumonia;
- with regular stressful conditions;
- with allergies with vivid manifestations;
- with infectious diseases;
- while taking some hormonal drugs.
Bazopenia can be observed as the norm under certain physical conditions:
- with ovulation in women;
- early pregnancy;
- during the recovery period after rubella, scarlet fever;
- with x-ray examinations.
Basophils are an important component of the immune process in the human body. They are able to neutralize poisons, toxins and stand up to protect your health at the first risk of an inflammatory process. If you have done a blood test and do not know how to decipher the result, do not ignore the situation. If there is an increased level of basophils, be sure to visit a doctor and consult with him about your condition. Sometimes basophilic indices are the first sign of an incipient disease.