Tetanus bacillus is considered to be a fairly common bacterium that enters the human body through mucous membrane or skin damage. Animals become the most frequent carrier of the animal, but infection with a sharp object is possible. The disease often enters the stage of asphyxia, ending in death. The worst thing is that there is no natural immunity to tetanus, which requires resorting to vaccination. However, does she protect? And how dangerous are its consequences?
How is tetanus vaccination given?
First you need to understand why and when you are vaccinated against tetanus.
Adults and children who are victims of an animal attack (both a bite and an open wound) are given the vaccine immediately and without fail. If the procedure is recommended as a measure of prevention for an adult, it should be carried out every 4-5 years.
For the first time children do it at the age of 3 months, the procedure is carried out 3 times, every 45 days, then upon reaching the 18th month. The next routine vaccination is carried out at 7 years old, repeated at 14, after which you can save an interval of 10 years.
As for where the tetanus vaccination is given, the injection is placed in the area below the scapula, where after removing the needle, a small solid tumor can remain, which resolves with time. Allowed to contribute to a more rapid disposal of her with compresses of levomikolevoy ointment. In children, red spots throughout the body and a general decrease in immunity become frequent instantaneous reactions. In adults, doctors fix a greater number of adverse reactions, some of which are eliminated by any antihistamine drug and do not cause concern, but it should be noted that an elevated temperature is not a normal response to vaccination, therefore, it requires an appeal to a specialist.
Side Effects of Tetanus Vaccination
It is often manifested negative reactions, recorded not only in children but also in adults, have led to the fact that the attitude to this procedure has become extremely cautious, and most often the person decides to refuse vaccination. Experts assure that in most cases the effects of tetanus vaccinations are short-term and pass on their own, but the procedure that was not completed on time can cost life.
- The reaction of the body can be either acute, observed within an hour after the vaccination, or delayed, the period of which is up to 48 hours after the procedure. Neuritis occurs in the period from 4 to 10 days. Most often side effects are observed in the first 3 days after vaccination.
- Local reactions are usually caused by the action of aluminum hydroxide and are reflected on the skin in the form of edema and inflammation at the site of the injection, as well as burning and severe pain, urticaria. Cases of dermatitis, prolonged (more than a month) granulomas have been recorded. Perhaps extensive damage with discoloration of the skin (on bluish-purple) and the appearance of blisters characteristic of burns.
- From the nervous system, seizures, paresis, lesions of the arm muscles, including their paralysis, as well as paralysis of the nerves of the respiratory system and larynx occur occasionally. However, the most common reaction of the central nervous system is headaches of any nature and duration, which disappear on their own.
- Extremely rare side effects on tetanus vaccination in adults are called tachycardia and heart attack, joint pain, diarrhea and nausea, epigastric pain, anuria.
To ensure that all these reactions, both safe and severe, do not show up, it is recommended to observe the recommendations of specialists: not to vaccinate with liver and kidney damage, after (and during) acute infections, asthma, if you are allergic to any of the components of the vaccine . Conducted research allows us to understand that one or other adverse reactions occur in each person being vaccinated, and this procedure is still not perfect; 1 death is recorded for every 500 vaccinations.
As a result, it is safe to say: no vaccination will give 100% guarantor of security, therefore, it is impossible to assert that a vaccine against tetanus is mandatory for everyone. If you believe that the side effects outweigh the perceived benefits, it is likely that it is better not to visit the doctor's office.