The gallbladder is the organ of the digestive tract that produces bile. It is she who takes an active part in the synthesis of enzymes and the breakdown of fatty compounds. If there are special indications, an operation is performed to remove the gallbladder. How to live after cholecystectomy is the topic of today's conversation.
When should you go to extreme measures?
The gallbladder plays an important role in the digestive process. Unfortunately, in nature there are such illnesses that can not be cured by therapeutic methods. In these cases, doctors resort to surgery to remove the gallbladder. In medical practice, this surgery is called laparoscopy.
There are several more ways to conduct such a surgical intervention, in particular:
- open-type laparoscopic cholecystectomy;
- laparoscopy using video equipment;
- traditional cholecystectomy.
Under what ailments are required to go to such drastic measures? As medical practice shows, the main indication for laparoscopy remains gallstone pathology of various types. By the way, laparoscopy is considered the safest and most gentle way to remove the gallbladder. It is carried out within a few hours, large incisions in the anterior wall of the peritoneum are not made, and rehabilitation is very fast.
We will return to the features of the postoperative period a little later, and now let's consider a list of indications for the elimination of the gallbladder:
- cholecystitis, developing in acute form during the first two days;
- obstructive jaundice;
- calculous type cholecystitis, developing in chronic form.
Unfortunately, laparoscopy is not allowed to all people. There are a number of factors that exclude its implementation, in particular:
- previously performed operations on the organs of the peritoneal cavity;
- intestinal surgery;
- adhesions or adhesions of organs with the abdominal wall;
- respiratory failure;
- pathology of the respiratory system, in particular, the lungs;
- Gestation in the late periods.
In these cases, the profile doctor may choose an alternative treatment for the disease.
Benefits of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
The advantages and safety of laparoscopy of the gallbladder are indicated first of all by a sparing method of surgical intervention and a short recovery period. In order to evaluate its positive aspects, it is possible to get acquainted with the reviews of patients who have undergone a surgery to remove the gallbladder.
Opinion of people and helps to formulate the main benefits of such surgery. These include:
- small incisions on the anterior peritoneum;
- rapid healing of postoperative scars;
- weak pain;
- stay in a medical facility lasts only from 2 to 5 days.
What you need to know about the operation?
Before the surgery, the patient must undergo a comprehensive examination and undergo a series of tests. A laparoscopy of the gallbladder under the influence of general anesthesia is performed. In order for the doctor to see a clear clinical picture, gas is injected through a special needle into the peritoneal cavity. On the wall of the abdominal cavity, four incisions are made into which tools and video equipment are inserted.
To avoid complications, the surgeon must mount the clips on the cystic duct and arteries. So he will warn the bleeding. Through the largest incision, the gallbladder is extracted, and open wounds are fixed with sutures.
Before performing a laparoscopy of the gallbladder, the specialized physician necessarily warns the patient about possible excesses. In particular, during such surgical manipulation, specialists can identify complications that cannot be eliminated by laparoscopic method. In this case, the operation becomes deep.
Life after laparoscopy
Immediately after the surgery, the patient is transported to the ward. While the patient is moving away from the action of anesthetic, he is under the total control of the attending physician. In the first hours after surgery, a person may experience dyspeptic disorders, in particular, nausea and urge to vomit. In this case, the doctor may prescribe a pharmacological agent that suppresses these symptoms.
Pain occurs almost immediately after the termination of the anesthesia. They may have different intensity, in connection with which the doctor prescribes painkillers and antispasmodic pharmaceutical preparations. Depending on the severity of the disease and the scale of the operation, a person may be given narcotic painkillers.
During the patient's stay in a medical institution, the specialized doctor adjusts the therapeutic method of treatment, taking into account the following aspects:
- if indicated, an infusion-type therapy is prescribed to the patient;
- with the development of inflammatory processes, antibiotic drugs are indicated;
- food is not allowed on the first day after the operation;
- feeding begins on the second day in small portions;
- physical activity is allowed for 2-3 days after surgery.
In the absence of complicated consequences of a patient undergoing laparoscopy of the gallbladder, they are discharged from the hospital for approximately 6-7 days. During rehabilitation at home, a person must strictly follow all the doctor's instructions. Light exercise is allowed only after 2-3 weeks after surgery. Special instructions and limitations in the postoperative period are made by the specialized doctor in accordance with the diagnosis, the patient's condition, the nature of the surgical intervention, etc.
Diet - a prerequisite after surgery
Any specialized physician will tell the patient that after surgery to remove the gallbladder, a diet must be observed during the rehabilitation period. First you need to forget about smoking and drinking alcohol. The life of a person without a gallbladder does not practically change, except for the fact that the bile now produced by the liver will directly flow into the intestine.
The dietary diet is indicated to restore the full digestion process, as well as to prevent the development of complicated consequences. Eating should be fractional, at least 5 times a day. In the first two months after the laparoscopic procedure, it is allowed to eat the following products:
- meat lean fillet cooked by steam treatment;
- boiled vegetables;
- rosehip compote;
- fresh juices, diluted with filtered water;
- one boiled chicken egg per day;
- berry and fruit purees.
After this time, the ration can be varied rye rusks, boiled rice, curd mass. Allowed some sweets, in particular, honey and jam. To avoid the development of complicated consequences, for at least two years after the operation to eliminate the gallbladder, a person should abandon any confectionery, smoked meats, chocolate products and ice cream.
Life after undergoing such an operation practically does not change, as evidenced by reviews from many people. But in order to prevent the occurrence of complications, it is necessary to strictly follow all the recommendations of the profile doctor and, of course, to adhere to the dietary ration. Be healthy!